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Compiler Reference Guide

Preface Arm Compiler Tools Overview armclang Reference armlink Reference fromelf Reference armar Reference armasm Legacy Assembler Reference armasm Command-line Options --16 --32 --apcs=qualifier…qualifier --arm --arm_only --bi --bigend --brief_diagnostics, --no_brief_diagnostics --checkreglist --cpreproc --cpreproc_opts=option[,option,…] --cpu=list (armasm) --cpu=name (armasm) --debug --depend=dependfile --depend_format=string --diag_error=tag[,tag,…] (armasm) --diag_remark=tag[,tag,…] (armasm) --diag_style={arm|ide|gnu} (armasm) --diag_suppress=tag[,tag,…] (armasm) --diag_warning=tag[,tag,…] (armasm) --dllexport_all --dwarf2 --dwarf3 --errors=errorfile --exceptions, --no_exceptions --exceptions_unwind, --no_exceptions_unwind --execstack, --no_execstack --execute_only --fpmode=model --fpu=list (armasm) --fpu=name (armasm) -g (armasm) --help (armasm) -idir[,dir, …] --keep (armasm) --length=n --li --library_type=lib --list=file --list= --littleend -m (armasm) --maxcache=n --md --no_code_gen --no_esc --no_hide_all --no_regs --no_terse --no_warn -o filename (armasm) --pd --predefine "directive" --reduce_paths, --no_reduce_paths --regnames --report-if-not-wysiwyg --show_cmdline (armasm) --thumb --unaligned_access, --no_unaligned_access --unsafe --untyped_local_labels --version_number (armasm) --via=filename (armasm) --vsn (armasm) --width=n --xref Structure of armasm Assembly Language Modules Syntax of source lines in armasm syntax assembly l Literals ELF sections and the AREA directive An example armasm syntax assembly language module Writing A32/T32 Instructions in armasm Syntax Asse About the Unified Assembler Language Syntax differences between UAL and A64 assembly la Register usage in subroutine calls Load immediate values Load immediate values using MOV and MVN Load immediate values using MOV32 Load immediate values using LDR Rd, =const Literal pools Load addresses into registers Load addresses to a register using ADR Load addresses to a register using ADRL Load addresses to a register using LDR Rd, =label Other ways to load and store registers Load and store multiple register instructions Load and store multiple register instructions in A Stack implementation using LDM and STM Stack operations for nested subroutines Block copy with LDM and STM Memory accesses The Read-Modify-Write operation Optional hash with immediate constants Use of macros Test-and-branch macro example Unsigned integer division macro example Instruction and directive relocations Symbol versions Frame directives Exception tables and Unwind tables Using armasm armasm command-line syntax Specify command-line options with an environment v Using stdin to input source code to the assembler Built-in variables and constants Identifying versions of armasm in source code Diagnostic messages Interlocks diagnostics Automatic IT block generation in T32 code T32 branch target alignment T32 code size diagnostics A32 and T32 instruction portability diagnostics T32 instruction width diagnostics Two pass assembler diagnostics Using the C preprocessor Address alignment in A32/T32 code Address alignment in A64 code Instruction width selection in T32 code Symbols, Literals, Expressions, and Operators in a Symbol naming rules Variables Numeric constants Assembly time substitution of variables Register-relative and PC-relative expressions Labels Labels for PC-relative addresses Labels for register-relative addresses Labels for absolute addresses Numeric local labels Syntax of numeric local labels String expressions String literals Numeric expressions Syntax of numeric literals Syntax of floating-point literals Logical expressions Logical literals Unary operators Binary operators Multiplicative operators String manipulation operators Shift operators Addition, subtraction, and logical operators Relational operators Boolean operators Operator precedence Difference between operator precedence in assembly armasm Directives Reference Alphabetical list of directives armasm assembly la About armasm assembly language control directives About frame directives Directives that can be omitted in pass 2 of the as ALIAS ALIGN AREA ARM or CODE32 directive ASSERT ATTR CN CODE16 directive COMMON CP DATA DCB DCD and DCDU DCDO DCFD and DCFDU DCFS and DCFSU DCI DCQ and DCQU DCW and DCWU END ENDFUNC or ENDP ENTRY EQU EXPORT or GLOBAL EXPORTAS FIELD FRAME ADDRESS FRAME POP FRAME PUSH FRAME REGISTER FRAME RESTORE FRAME RETURN ADDRESS FRAME SAVE FRAME STATE REMEMBER FRAME STATE RESTORE FRAME UNWIND ON FRAME UNWIND OFF FUNCTION or PROC GBLA, GBLL, and GBLS GET or INCLUDE IF, ELSE, ENDIF, and ELIF IMPORT and EXTERN INCBIN INFO KEEP LCLA, LCLL, and LCLS LTORG MACRO and MEND MAP MEXIT NOFP OPT QN, DN, and SN RELOC REQUIRE REQUIRE8 and PRESERVE8 RLIST RN ROUT SETA, SETL, and SETS SPACE or FILL THUMB directive TTL and SUBT WHILE and WEND WN and XN armasm-Specific A32 and T32 Instruction Set Featur armasm support for the CSDB instruction A32 and T32 pseudo-instruction summary ADRL pseudo-instruction CPY pseudo-instruction LDR pseudo-instruction MOV32 pseudo-instruction NEG pseudo-instruction UND pseudo-instruction Appendixes

AREA

F6.7 AREA

The AREA directive instructs the assembler to assemble a new code or data section.

Syntax

AREA sectionname{,attr}{,attr}...

Where:

sectionname

Is the name to give to the section. Sections are independent, named, indivisible chunks of code or data that the linker manipulates.

You can choose any name for your sections. However, names starting with a non-alphabetic character must be enclosed in bars or a missing section name error is generated. For example, |1_DataArea|.

Certain names are conventional. For example, |.text| is used for code sections that the C compiler produces, or for code sections that are otherwise associated with the C library.

attr

Are one or more comma-delimited section attributes. Valid attributes are:

ALIGN=expression

By default, ELF sections are aligned on a four-byte boundary. expression can have any integer value from 0-31. The section is aligned on a 2expression-byte boundary. For example, if expression is 10, the section is aligned on a 1KB boundary.

This attribute is not the same as the way that the ALIGN directive is specified.

Note:

Do not use ALIGN=0 or ALIGN=1 for A32 code sections.

Do not use ALIGN=0 for T32 code sections.

ASSOC=section

section specifies an associated ELF section. sectionname must be included in any link that includes section

CODE

Contains machine instructions. READONLY is the default.

CODEALIGN

Causes armasm to insert NOP instructions when the ALIGN directive is used after A32 or T32 instructions within the section, unless the ALIGN directive specifies a different padding. CODEALIGN is the default for execute-only sections.

COMDEF

Note:

This attribute is deprecated. Use the COMGROUP attribute.

Is a common section definition. This ELF section can contain code or data. It must be identical to any other section of the same name in other source files.

Identical ELF sections with the same name are overlaid in the same section of memory by the linker. If any are different, the linker generates a warning and does not overlay the sections.

COMGROUP=symbol_name

Is the signature that makes the AREA part of the named ELF section group. See the GROUP=symbol_name for more information. The COMGROUP attribute marks the ELF section group with the GRP_COMDAT flag.

COMMON

Is a common data section. You must not define any code or data in it. The section is initialized to zeros by the linker. All common sections with the same name are overlaid in the same section of memory by the linker. They do not all have to be the same size. The linker allocates as much space that the largest common section of each name requires.

DATA

Contains data, not instructions. READWRITE is the default.

EXECONLY

Indicates that the section is execute-only. Execute-only sections must also have the CODE attribute, and must not have any of the following attributes:

  • READONLY.
  • READWRITE.
  • DATA.
  • ZEROALIGN.

armasm faults if any of the following occur in an execute-only section:

  • Explicit data definitions, for example DCD and DCB.
  • Implicit data definitions, for example LDR r0, =0xaabbccdd.
  • Literal pool directives, for example LTORG, if there is literal data to be emitted.
  • INCBIN or SPACE directives.
  • ALIGN directives, if padding with NOP instructions cannot achieve the required alignment. armasm implicitly applies the CODEALIGN attribute to sections with the EXECONLY attribute.
FINI_ARRAY

Sets the ELF type of the current area to SHT_FINI_ARRAY.

GROUP=symbol_name

Is the signature that makes the AREA part of the named ELF section group. The source file or a file that the source file includes must define the group. All AREAS with the same symbol_name signature are part of the same group. Sections within a group are kept or discarded together.

INIT_ARRAY

Sets the ELF type of the current area to SHT_INIT_ARRAY.

LINKORDER=section

Specifies a relative location for the current section in the image. This attribute ensures that the order of all the sections with the LINKORDER attribute, with respect to each other, is the same as the order of the corresponding named sections in the image.

MERGE=n

Indicates that the linker can merge the current section with other sections with the MERGE=n attribute. n is the size of the elements in the section, for example n is 1 for characters. You must not assume that the section is merged, because the attribute does not force the linker to merge the sections.

NOALLOC

Indicates that no memory on the target system is allocated to this area.

NOINIT

Indicates that the data section is uninitialized, or initialized to zero. It contains only space reservation directives SPACE or DCB, DCD, DCDU, DCQ, DCQU, DCW, or DCWU with initialized values of zero. You can decide at link time whether an area is uninitialized or zero-initialized.

Note:

Arm® Compiler does not support systems with ECC or parity protection where the memory is not initialized.
PREINIT_ARRAY

Sets the ELF type of the current area to SHT_PREINIT_ARRAY.

READONLY

Indicates that this section must not be written to. This attribute is the default for Code areas.

READWRITE

Indicates that this section can be read from and written to. This attribute is the default for Data areas.

SECFLAGS=n

Adds one or more ELF flags, denoted by n, to the current section.

SECTYPE=n

Sets the ELF type of the current section to n.

STRINGS

Adds the SHF_STRINGS flag to the current section. To use the STRINGS attribute, you must also use the MERGE=1 attribute. The contents of the section must be strings that are nul-terminated using the DCB directive.

ZEROALIGN

Causes armasm to insert zeros when the ALIGN directive is used after A32 or T32 instructions within the section, unless the ALIGN directive specifies a different padding. ZEROALIGN is the default for sections that are not execute-only.

Usage

Use the AREA directive to subdivide your source file into ELF sections. You can use the same name in more than one AREA directive. All areas with the same name are placed in the same ELF section. Only the attributes of the first AREA directive of a particular name are applied.

In general, Arm recommends that you use separate ELF sections for code and data. However, you can put data in code sections. Large programs can usually be conveniently divided into several code sections. Large independent data sets are also best placed in separate sections.

AREA directives define the scope of numeric local labels, optionally subdivided by ROUT directives.

There must be at least one AREA directive for an assembly.

Note:

If the directive uses PC-relative expressions and is in any of the PREINIT_ARRAY, FINI_ARRAY, or INIT_ARRAY ELF sections, then armasm emits R_ARM_TARGET1 relocations for the DCD and DCDU directives. You can override the relocation using the RELOC directive after each DCD or DCDU directive. If this relocation is used, read/write sections might become read-only sections at link time if permitted by the platform ABI.

Example

The following example defines a read-only code section named Example:

    AREA    Example,CODE,READONLY   ; An example code section.
            ; code
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