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Preface Arm Compiler Tools Overview armclang Reference armlink Reference fromelf Reference armar Reference armasm Legacy Assembler Reference armasm Command-line Options --16 --32 --apcs=qualifier…qualifier --arm --arm_only --bi --bigend --brief_diagnostics, --no_brief_diagnostics --checkreglist --cpreproc --cpreproc_opts=option[,option,…] --cpu=list (armasm) --cpu=name (armasm) --debug --depend=dependfile --depend_format=string --diag_error=tag[,tag,…] (armasm) --diag_remark=tag[,tag,…] (armasm) --diag_style={arm|ide|gnu} (armasm) --diag_suppress=tag[,tag,…] (armasm) --diag_warning=tag[,tag,…] (armasm) --dllexport_all --dwarf2 --dwarf3 --errors=errorfile --exceptions, --no_exceptions --exceptions_unwind, --no_exceptions_unwind --execstack, --no_execstack --execute_only --fpmode=model --fpu=list (armasm) --fpu=name (armasm) -g (armasm) --help (armasm) -idir[,dir, …] --keep (armasm) --length=n --li --library_type=lib --list=file --list= --littleend -m (armasm) --maxcache=n --md --no_code_gen --no_esc --no_hide_all --no_regs --no_terse --no_warn -o filename (armasm) --pd --predefine "directive" --reduce_paths, --no_reduce_paths --regnames --report-if-not-wysiwyg --show_cmdline (armasm) --thumb --unaligned_access, --no_unaligned_access --unsafe --untyped_local_labels --version_number (armasm) --via=filename (armasm) --vsn (armasm) --width=n --xref Structure of armasm Assembly Language Modules Syntax of source lines in armasm syntax assembly l Literals ELF sections and the AREA directive An example armasm syntax assembly language module Writing A32/T32 Instructions in armasm Syntax Asse About the Unified Assembler Language Syntax differences between UAL and A64 assembly la Register usage in subroutine calls Load immediate values Load immediate values using MOV and MVN Load immediate values using MOV32 Load immediate values using LDR Rd, =const Literal pools Load addresses into registers Load addresses to a register using ADR Load addresses to a register using ADRL Load addresses to a register using LDR Rd, =label Other ways to load and store registers Load and store multiple register instructions Load and store multiple register instructions in A Stack implementation using LDM and STM Stack operations for nested subroutines Block copy with LDM and STM Memory accesses The Read-Modify-Write operation Optional hash with immediate constants Use of macros Test-and-branch macro example Unsigned integer division macro example Instruction and directive relocations Symbol versions Frame directives Exception tables and Unwind tables Using armasm armasm command-line syntax Specify command-line options with an environment v Using stdin to input source code to the assembler Built-in variables and constants Identifying versions of armasm in source code Diagnostic messages Interlocks diagnostics Automatic IT block generation in T32 code T32 branch target alignment T32 code size diagnostics A32 and T32 instruction portability diagnostics T32 instruction width diagnostics Two pass assembler diagnostics Using the C preprocessor Address alignment in A32/T32 code Address alignment in A64 code Instruction width selection in T32 code Symbols, Literals, Expressions, and Operators in a Symbol naming rules Variables Numeric constants Assembly time substitution of variables Register-relative and PC-relative expressions Labels Labels for PC-relative addresses Labels for register-relative addresses Labels for absolute addresses Numeric local labels Syntax of numeric local labels String expressions String literals Numeric expressions Syntax of numeric literals Syntax of floating-point literals Logical expressions Logical literals Unary operators Binary operators Multiplicative operators String manipulation operators Shift operators Addition, subtraction, and logical operators Relational operators Boolean operators Operator precedence Difference between operator precedence in assembly armasm Directives Reference Alphabetical list of directives armasm assembly la About armasm assembly language control directives About frame directives Directives that can be omitted in pass 2 of the as ALIAS ALIGN AREA ARM or CODE32 directive ASSERT ATTR CN CODE16 directive COMMON CP DATA DCB DCD and DCDU DCDO DCFD and DCFDU DCFS and DCFSU DCI DCQ and DCQU DCW and DCWU END ENDFUNC or ENDP ENTRY EQU EXPORT or GLOBAL EXPORTAS FIELD FRAME ADDRESS FRAME POP FRAME PUSH FRAME REGISTER FRAME RESTORE FRAME RETURN ADDRESS FRAME SAVE FRAME STATE REMEMBER FRAME STATE RESTORE FRAME UNWIND ON FRAME UNWIND OFF FUNCTION or PROC GBLA, GBLL, and GBLS GET or INCLUDE IF, ELSE, ENDIF, and ELIF IMPORT and EXTERN INCBIN INFO KEEP LCLA, LCLL, and LCLS LTORG MACRO and MEND MAP MEXIT NOFP OPT QN, DN, and SN RELOC REQUIRE REQUIRE8 and PRESERVE8 RLIST RN ROUT SETA, SETL, and SETS SPACE or FILL THUMB directive TTL and SUBT WHILE and WEND WN and XN armasm-Specific A32 and T32 Instruction Set Featur armasm support for the CSDB instruction A32 and T32 pseudo-instruction summary ADRL pseudo-instruction CPY pseudo-instruction LDR pseudo-instruction MOV32 pseudo-instruction NEG pseudo-instruction UND pseudo-instruction Appendixes

--apcs=qualifier…qualifier

F1.3 --apcs=qualifier…qualifier

Controls interworking and position independence when generating code.

Syntax

--apcs=qualifier...qualifier

Where qualifier...qualifier denotes a list of qualifiers. There must be:

  • At least one qualifier present.
  • No spaces or commas separating individual qualifiers in the list.

Each instance of qualifier must be one of:

none

Specifies that the input file does not use AAPCS. AAPCS registers are not set up. Other qualifiers are not permitted if you use none.

/interwork, /nointerwork

For Arm®v7‑A, Armv7‑R, Armv8‑A, and Armv8‑R, /interwork specifies that the code in the input file can interwork between A32 and T32 safely.

The default is /interwork for AArch32 targets that support both A32 and T32 instruction sets.

The default is /nointerwork for AArch32 targets that only support the T32 instruction set (M-profile targets).

When assembling for AArch64 state, interworking is not available.

/inter, /nointer

Are synonyms for /interwork and /nointerwork.

/ropi, /noropi
/ropi specifies that the code in the input file is Read-Only Position-Independent (ROPI). The default is /noropi.
/pic, /nopic
Are synonyms for /ropi and /noropi.
/rwpi, /norwpi
/rwpi specifies that the code in the input file is Read-Write Position-Independent (RWPI). The default is /norwpi.
/pid, /nopid
Are synonyms for /rwpi and /norwpi.
/fpic, /nofpic
/fpic specifies that the code in the input file is read-only independent and references to addresses are suitable for use in a Linux shared object. The default is /nofpic.
/hardfp, /softfp

Requests hardware or software floating-point linkage. This enables the procedure call standard to be specified separately from the version of the floating-point hardware available through the --fpu option. It is still possible to specify the procedure call standard by using the --fpu option, but Arm recommends you use --apcs. If floating-point support is not permitted (for example, because --fpu=none is specified, or because of other means), then /hardfp and /softfp are ignored. If floating-point support is permitted and the softfp calling convention is used (--fpu=softvfp or --fpu=softvfp+fp-armv8), then /hardfp gives an error.

/softfp is not supported for AArch64 state.

Usage

This option specifies whether you are using the Procedure Call Standard for the Arm® Architecture (AAPCS). It can also specify some attributes of code sections.

The AAPCS forms part of the Base Standard Application Binary Interface for the Arm® Architecture (BSABI) specification. By writing code that adheres to the AAPCS, you can ensure that separately compiled and assembled modules can work together.

Note:

AAPCS qualifiers do not affect the code produced by armasm. They are an assertion by the programmer that the code in the input file complies with a particular variant of AAPCS. They cause attributes to be set in the object file produced by armasm. The linker uses these attributes to check compatibility of files, and to select appropriate library variants.

Example

armasm --cpu=8-A.32 --apcs=/inter/hardfp inputfile.s
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