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Compiler Reference Guide

Preface Arm Compiler Tools Overview armclang Reference armlink Reference fromelf Reference armar Reference armasm Legacy Assembler Reference armasm Command-line Options --16 --32 --apcs=qualifier…qualifier --arm --arm_only --bi --bigend --brief_diagnostics, --no_brief_diagnostics --checkreglist --cpreproc --cpreproc_opts=option[,option,…] --cpu=list (armasm) --cpu=name (armasm) --debug --depend=dependfile --depend_format=string --diag_error=tag[,tag,…] (armasm) --diag_remark=tag[,tag,…] (armasm) --diag_style={arm|ide|gnu} (armasm) --diag_suppress=tag[,tag,…] (armasm) --diag_warning=tag[,tag,…] (armasm) --dllexport_all --dwarf2 --dwarf3 --errors=errorfile --exceptions, --no_exceptions --exceptions_unwind, --no_exceptions_unwind --execstack, --no_execstack --execute_only --fpmode=model --fpu=list (armasm) --fpu=name (armasm) -g (armasm) --help (armasm) -idir[,dir, …] --keep (armasm) --length=n --li --library_type=lib --list=file --list= --littleend -m (armasm) --maxcache=n --md --no_code_gen --no_esc --no_hide_all --no_regs --no_terse --no_warn -o filename (armasm) --pd --predefine "directive" --reduce_paths, --no_reduce_paths --regnames --report-if-not-wysiwyg --show_cmdline (armasm) --thumb --unaligned_access, --no_unaligned_access --unsafe --untyped_local_labels --version_number (armasm) --via=filename (armasm) --vsn (armasm) --width=n --xref Structure of armasm Assembly Language Modules Syntax of source lines in armasm syntax assembly l Literals ELF sections and the AREA directive An example armasm syntax assembly language module Writing A32/T32 Instructions in armasm Syntax Asse About the Unified Assembler Language Syntax differences between UAL and A64 assembly la Register usage in subroutine calls Load immediate values Load immediate values using MOV and MVN Load immediate values using MOV32 Load immediate values using LDR Rd, =const Literal pools Load addresses into registers Load addresses to a register using ADR Load addresses to a register using ADRL Load addresses to a register using LDR Rd, =label Other ways to load and store registers Load and store multiple register instructions Load and store multiple register instructions in A Stack implementation using LDM and STM Stack operations for nested subroutines Block copy with LDM and STM Memory accesses The Read-Modify-Write operation Optional hash with immediate constants Use of macros Test-and-branch macro example Unsigned integer division macro example Instruction and directive relocations Symbol versions Frame directives Exception tables and Unwind tables Using armasm armasm command-line syntax Specify command-line options with an environment v Using stdin to input source code to the assembler Built-in variables and constants Identifying versions of armasm in source code Diagnostic messages Interlocks diagnostics Automatic IT block generation in T32 code T32 branch target alignment T32 code size diagnostics A32 and T32 instruction portability diagnostics T32 instruction width diagnostics Two pass assembler diagnostics Using the C preprocessor Address alignment in A32/T32 code Address alignment in A64 code Instruction width selection in T32 code Symbols, Literals, Expressions, and Operators in a Symbol naming rules Variables Numeric constants Assembly time substitution of variables Register-relative and PC-relative expressions Labels Labels for PC-relative addresses Labels for register-relative addresses Labels for absolute addresses Numeric local labels Syntax of numeric local labels String expressions String literals Numeric expressions Syntax of numeric literals Syntax of floating-point literals Logical expressions Logical literals Unary operators Binary operators Multiplicative operators String manipulation operators Shift operators Addition, subtraction, and logical operators Relational operators Boolean operators Operator precedence Difference between operator precedence in assembly armasm Directives Reference Alphabetical list of directives armasm assembly la About armasm assembly language control directives About frame directives Directives that can be omitted in pass 2 of the as ALIAS ALIGN AREA ARM or CODE32 directive ASSERT ATTR CN CODE16 directive COMMON CP DATA DCB DCD and DCDU DCDO DCFD and DCFDU DCFS and DCFSU DCI DCQ and DCQU DCW and DCWU END ENDFUNC or ENDP ENTRY EQU EXPORT or GLOBAL EXPORTAS FIELD FRAME ADDRESS FRAME POP FRAME PUSH FRAME REGISTER FRAME RESTORE FRAME RETURN ADDRESS FRAME SAVE FRAME STATE REMEMBER FRAME STATE RESTORE FRAME UNWIND ON FRAME UNWIND OFF FUNCTION or PROC GBLA, GBLL, and GBLS GET or INCLUDE IF, ELSE, ENDIF, and ELIF IMPORT and EXTERN INCBIN INFO KEEP LCLA, LCLL, and LCLS LTORG MACRO and MEND MAP MEXIT NOFP OPT QN, DN, and SN RELOC REQUIRE REQUIRE8 and PRESERVE8 RLIST RN ROUT SETA, SETL, and SETS SPACE or FILL THUMB directive TTL and SUBT WHILE and WEND WN and XN armasm-Specific A32 and T32 Instruction Set Featur armasm support for the CSDB instruction A32 and T32 pseudo-instruction summary ADRL pseudo-instruction CPY pseudo-instruction LDR pseudo-instruction MOV32 pseudo-instruction NEG pseudo-instruction UND pseudo-instruction Appendixes

Numeric expressions

F5.14 Numeric expressions

Numeric expressions consist of combinations of numeric constants, numeric variables, ordinary numeric literals, binary operators, and parentheses.

Numeric expressions can contain register-relative or program-relative expressions if the overall expression evaluates to a value that does not include a register or the PC.

Numeric expressions evaluate to 32-bit integers in A32 and T32 code. You can interpret them as unsigned numbers in the range 0 to 232-1, or signed numbers in the range -231 to 231-1. However, armasm makes no distinction between -n and 232-n. Relational operators such as >= use the unsigned interpretation. This means that 0 > -1 is {FALSE}.

In A64 code, numeric expressions evaluate to 64-bit integers. You can interpret them as unsigned numbers in the range 0 to 264-1, or signed numbers in the range -263 to 263-1. However, armasm makes no distinction between -n and 264-n.

Note:

armasm does not support 64-bit arithmetic variables. See F6.64 SETA, SETL, and SETS (Restrictions) for a workaround.

Arm recommends that you only use armasm for legacy Arm® syntax assembly code, and that you use the armclang assembler and GNU syntax for all new assembly files.

Example

a   SETA    256*256           ; 256*256 is a numeric expression
    MOV     r1,#(a*22)        ; (a*22) is a numeric expression
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