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Linker User Guide

Preface Overview of the Linker Linking Models Supported by armlink Image Structure and Generation Linker Optimization Features Getting Image Details Accessing and Managing Symbols with armlink Scatter-loading Features The scatter-loading mechanism Overview of scatter-loading When to use scatter-loading Linker-defined symbols that are not defined when s Specifying stack and heap using the scatter file Scatter-loading command-line options Scatter-loading images with a simple memory map Scatter-loading images with a complex memory map Scatter file with link to bit-band objects Root execution regions Root execution region and the initial entry point Root execution regions and the ABSOLUTE attribute Root execution regions and the FIXED attribute Methods of placing functions and data at specific Placement of code and data with __attribute__((sec Placement of __at sections at a specific address Restrictions on placing __at sections Automatic placement of __at sections Manual placement of __at sections Placement of a key in flash memory with an __at se Mapping a structure over a peripheral register wit Example of how to explicitly place a named section Placement of unassigned sections with the .ANY mod Placement rules when using multiple .ANY selectors Command-line options for controlling the placement Prioritization of .ANY sections Specify the maximum region size permitted for plac Examples of using placement algorithms for .ANY se Example of next_fit algorithm showing behavior of Examples of using sorting algorithms for .ANY sect Behavior when .ANY sections overflow because of li Placement of veneer input sections in a scatter fi Placement of sections with overlays Reserving an empty region Placement of ARM C and C++ library code Specifying ARM standard C and C++ libraries in a s Example of placing code in a root region Example of placing ARM C library code Example of placing ARM C++ library code Example of placing ARM library helper functions Creation of regions on page boundaries Overalignment of execution regions and input secti Preprocessing of a scatter file Example of using expression evaluation in a scatte Equivalent scatter-loading descriptions for simple Command-line options for creating simple images Type 1 image, one load region and contiguous execu Type 2 image, one load region and non-contiguous e Type 3 image, multiple load regions and non-contig How the linker resolves multiple matches when proc How the linker resolves path names when processing Scatter file to ELF mapping Scatter File Syntax Linker Command-line Options Linker Steering File Command Reference Via File Syntax

Automatic placement of __at sections

7.2.8 Automatic placement of __at sections

The linker automatically places __at sections, but you can override this.

The automatic placement of __at sections is enabled by default. This feature is controlled by the linker command-line option, --autoat.

Note

You cannot use __at section placement with position independent execution regions.
When linking with the --autoat option, the __at sections are not placed by the scatter-loading selectors. Instead, the linker places the __at section in a compatible region. If no compatible region is found, the linker creates a load and execution region for the __at section.
All linker --autoat created execution regions have the UNINIT scatter-loading attribute. If you require a ZI __at section to be zero-initialized then it must be placed within a compatible region. A linker --autoat created execution region must have a base address that is at least 4 byte-aligned. The linker produces an error message if any region is incorrectly aligned.
A compatible region is one where:
  • The __at address lies within the execution region base and limit, where limit is the base address + maximum size of execution region. If no maximum size is set, the linker sets the limit for placing __at sections as the current size of the execution region without __at sections plus a constant. The default value of this constant is 10240 bytes, but you can change the value using the --max_er_extension command-line option.
  • The execution region meets at least one of the following conditions:
    • It has a selector that matches the __at section by the standard scatter-loading rules.
    • It has at least one section of the same type (RO, RW or ZI) as the __at section.
    • It does not have the EMPTY attribute.

      Note

      The linker considers an __at section with type RW compatible with RO.

Example

The following example shows the manual placement of variables is achieved in C or C++ code, with the sections .ARM.__at_0x0000 type RO, .ARM.__at_0x2000 type RW, .ARM.__at_0x4000 type ZI, and .ARM.__at_0x8000 type ZI:
// place the RO variable in a section called .ARM.__at_0x00000000
const int baz __attribute__((at(0x0000))) = 100;
// place the RW variable in a section called .ARM.__at_0x00002000
int foo __attribute__((at(0x2000))) = 100;
// place the ZI variable in a section called .ARM.__at_0x00004000
int bar __attribute__((at(0x4000), zero_init));
// place the ZI variable in a section called .ARM.__at_0x00008000
int variable __attribute__((at(0x8000), zero_init));
The following scatter file shows how the placement of __at sections is achieved automatically:
LR1 0x0
{
    ER_RO 0x0 0x2000
    {
        *(+RO)      ; .ARM.__at_0x00000000 lies within the bounds of ER_RO
    }
    ER_RW 0x2000 0x2000
    {
        *(+RW)      ; .ARM.__at_0x00002000 lies within the bounds of ER_RW
    }
    ER_ZI 0x4000 0x2000
    {
        *(+ZI)      ; .ARM.__at_0x00004000 lies within the bounds of ER_ZI
    }
}
; The linker creates a load and execution region for the __at section
; .ARM.__at_0x00008000 because it lies outside all candidate regions.
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