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Linker User Guide

Conventions and feedback Overview of the linker Linking models supported by armlink Image structure and generation Using linker optimizations Getting information about images Accessing and managing symbols with armlink Using scatter files About scatter-loading When to use scatter-loading Scatter-loading command-line option Images with a simple memory map Images with a complex memory map Linker-defined symbols that are not defined when s Specifying stack and heap using the scatter file What is a root region? Creating root execution regions Using the FIXED attribute to create root regions Placing functions and data at specific addresses Placing a named section explicitly using scatter-l Placing unassigned sections with the .ANY module s Examples of using placement algorithms for .ANY se Example of next_fit algorithm showing behavior of Examples of using sorting algorithms for .ANY sect Selecting veneer input sections in scatter-loading Using __attribute__((section("name"))) t Using __at sections to place sections at a specifi Restrictions on placing __at sections Automatic placement of __at sections Manual placement of __at sections Placing a key in flash memory using __at Placing a structure over a peripheral register usi Placement of sections with overlays About placing ARM C and C++ library code Example of placing code in a root region Example of placing ARM C library code Example of placing ARM C++ library code Example of placing ARM library helper functions Reserving an empty region About creating regions on page boundaries Overalignment of execution regions and input secti Using preprocessing commands in a scatter file Expression evaluation in scatter files Using expression evaluation in a scatter file to a Equivalent scatter-loading descriptions for simple Type 1 image, one load region and contiguous execu Type 2 image, one load region and non-contiguous e Type 3 image, two load regions and non-contiguous Scatter file to ELF mapping

Examples of using placement algorithms for .ANY sections

Examples of using placement algorithms for .ANY sections

These examples show the operation of the placement algorithms for RO-CODE sections in sections.o.

The input section properties and ordering are shown in the following table:

Table 10. Input section properties

NameSize
sec10x4
sec20x4
sec30x4
sec40x4
sec50x4
sec60x4

The scatter file used for the examples is:

LR 0x100
{
  ER_1 0x100 0x10
  {
     .ANY
  }

  ER_2 0x200 0x10
  {
     .ANY
  }
}

Note

These examples have --any_contingency disabled.

Show/hideExample for first_fit, next_fit, and best_fit

This example shows the situation where several sections of equal size are assigned to two regions with one selector. The selectors are equally specific, equivalent to .ANY(+R0) and have no priority.

    Execution Region ER_1 (Base: 0x00000100, Size: 0x00000010, Max: 0x00000010, ABSOLUTE)

    Base Addr    Size         Type   Attr      Idx    E Section Name        Object

    0x00000100   0x00000004   Code   RO            1    sec1                sections.o
    0x00000104   0x00000004   Code   RO            2    sec2                sections.o
    0x00000108   0x00000004   Code   RO            3    sec3                sections.o
    0x0000010c   0x00000004   Code   RO            4    sec4                sections.o


    Execution Region ER_2 (Base: 0x00000200, Size: 0x00000008, Max: 0x00000010, ABSOLUTE)

    Base Addr    Size         Type   Attr      Idx    E Section Name        Object

    0x00000200   0x00000004   Code   RO            5    sec5                sections.o
    0x00000204   0x00000004   Code   RO            6    sec6                sections.o

In this example:

  • For first_fit the linker first assigns all the sections it can to ER_1, then moves on to ER_2 because that is the next available region.

  • For next_fit the linker does the same as first_fit. However, when ER_1 is full it is marked as FULL and is not considered again. In this example, ER_1 is completely full. ER_2 is then considered.

  • For best_fit the linker assigns sec1 to ER_1. It then has two regions of equal priority and specificity, but ER_1 has less space remaining. Therefore, the linker assigns sec2 to ER_1, and continues assigning sections until ER_1 is full.

Show/hideExample for worst_fit

This example shows the image memory map when using the worst_fit algorithm.

    Execution Region ER_1 (Base: 0x00000100, Size: 0x0000000c, Max: 0x00000010, ABSOLUTE)

    Base Addr    Size         Type   Attr      Idx    E Section Name        Object

    0x00000100   0x00000004   Code   RO            1    sec1                sections.o
    0x00000104   0x00000004   Code   RO            3    sec3                sections.o
    0x00000108   0x00000004   Code   RO            5    sec5                sections.o


    Execution Region ER_2 (Base: 0x00000200, Size: 0x0000000c, Max: 0x00000010, ABSOLUTE)

    Base Addr    Size         Type   Attr      Idx    E Section Name        Object

    0x00000200   0x00000004   Code   RO            2    sec2                sections.o
    0x00000204   0x00000004   Code   RO            4    sec4                sections.o
    0x00000208   0x00000004   Code   RO            6    sec6                sections.o

The linker first assigns sec1 to ER_1. It then has two equally specific and priority regions. It assigns sec2 to the one with the most free space, ER_2 in this example. The regions now have the same amount of space remaining, so the linker assigns sec3 to the first one that appears in the scatter file, that is ER_1.

Note

The behavior of worst_fit is the default behavior in this version of the linker, and it is the only algorithm available and earlier linker versions.

Copyright © 2007-2008, 2011-2012 ARM. All rights reserved.ARM DUI 0377D
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