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Preface Arm Compiler Tools Overview armclang Reference armlink Reference armlink Command-line Options --any_contingency --any_placement=algorithm --any_sort_order=order --api, --no_api --autoat, --no_autoat --bare_metal_pie --base_platform --bestdebug, --no_bestdebug --blx_arm_thumb, --no_blx_arm_thumb --blx_thumb_arm, --no_blx_thumb_arm --bpabi --branchnop, --no_branchnop --callgraph, --no_callgraph --callgraph_file=filename --callgraph_output=fmt --callgraph_subset=symbol[,symbol,...] --cgfile=type --cgsymbol=type --cgundefined=type --comment_section, --no_comment_section --cppinit, --no_cppinit --cpu=list (armlink) --cpu=name (armlink) --crosser_veneershare, --no_crosser_veneershare --datacompressor=opt --debug, --no_debug --diag_error=tag[,tag,…] (armlink) --diag_remark=tag[,tag,…] (armlink) --diag_style={arm|ide|gnu} (armlink) --diag_suppress=tag[,tag,…] (armlink) --diag_warning=tag[,tag,…] (armlink) --dll --dynamic_linker=name --eager_load_debug, --no_eager_load_debug --eh_frame_hdr --edit=file_list --emit_debug_overlay_relocs --emit_debug_overlay_section --emit_non_debug_relocs --emit_relocs --entry=location --errors=filename --exceptions, --no_exceptions --export_all, --no_export_all --export_dynamic, --no_export_dynamic --filtercomment, --no_filtercomment --fini=symbol --first=section_id --force_explicit_attr --force_so_throw, --no_force_so_throw --fpic --fpu=list (armlink) --fpu=name (armlink) --got=type --gnu_linker_defined_syms --help (armlink) --import_cmse_lib_in=filename --import_cmse_lib_out=filename --import_unresolved, --no_import_unresolved --info=topic[,topic,…] (armlink) --info_lib_prefix=opt --init=symbol --inline, --no_inline --inline_type=type --inlineveneer, --no_inlineveneer input-file-list (armlink) --keep=section_id (armlink) --keep_intermediate --largeregions, --no_largeregions --last=section_id --legacyalign, --no_legacyalign --libpath=pathlist --library=name --library_security=protection --library_type=lib --list=filename --list_mapping_symbols, --no_list_mapping_symbols --load_addr_map_info, --no_load_addr_map_info --locals, --no_locals --lto, --no_lto --lto_keep_all_symbols, --no_lto_keep_all_symbols --lto_intermediate_filename --lto_level --lto_relocation_model --mangled, --unmangled --map, --no_map --max_er_extension=size --max_veneer_passes=value --max_visibility=type --merge, --no_merge --merge_litpools, --no_merge_litpools --muldefweak, --no_muldefweak -o filename, --output=filename (armlink) --output_float_abi=option --overlay_veneers --override_visibility -Omax (armlink) --pad=num --paged --pagesize=pagesize --partial --pie --piveneer, --no_piveneer --pixolib --pltgot=type --pltgot_opts=mode --predefine="string" --preinit, --no_preinit --privacy (armlink) --ref_cpp_init, --no_ref_cpp_init --ref_pre_init, --no_ref_pre_init --reloc --remarks --remove, --no_remove --ro_base=address --ropi --rosplit --rw_base=address --rwpi --scanlib, --no_scanlib --scatter=filename --section_index_display=type --shared --show_cmdline (armlink) --show_full_path --show_parent_lib --show_sec_idx --soname=name --sort=algorithm --split --startup=symbol, --no_startup --stdlib --strict --strict_flags, --no_strict_flags --strict_ph, --no_strict_ph --strict_preserve8_require8 --strict_relocations, --no_strict_relocations --strict_symbols, --no_strict_symbols --strict_visibility, --no_strict_visibility --symbols, --no_symbols --symdefs=filename --symver_script=filename --symver_soname --sysv --tailreorder, --no_tailreorder --tiebreaker=option --unaligned_access, --no_unaligned_access --undefined=symbol --undefined_and_export=symbol --unresolved=symbol --use_definition_visibility --userlibpath=pathlist --veneerinject, --no_veneerinject --veneer_inject_type=type --veneer_pool_size=size --veneershare, --no_veneershare --verbose --version_number (armlink) --via=filename (armlink) --vsn (armlink) --xo_base=address --xref, --no_xref --xrefdbg, --no_xrefdbg --xref{from|to}=object(section) --zi_base=address Linking Models Supported by armlink Overview of linking models Bare-metal linking model overview Partial linking model overview Base Platform Application Binary Interface (BPABI) Base Platform linking model overview SysV linking model overview Concepts common to both BPABI and SysV linking mod Image Structure and Generation The structure of an Arm ELF image Views of the image at each link stage Input sections, output sections, regions, and prog Load view and execution view of an image Methods of specifying an image memory map with the Image entry points Restrictions on image structure Simple images Types of simple image Type 1 image structure, one load region and contig Type 2 image structure, one load region and non-co Type 3 image structure, multiple load regions and Section placement with the linker Default section placement Section placement with the FIRST and LAST attribut Section alignment with the linker Linker support for creating demand-paged files Linker reordering of execution regions containing Linker-generated veneers What is a veneer? Veneer sharing Veneer types Generation of position independent to absolute ven Reuse of veneers when scatter-loading Generation of secure gateway veneers Command-line options used to control the generatio Weak references and definitions How the linker performs library searching, selecti How the linker searches for the Arm standard libra Specifying user libraries when linking How the linker resolves references The strict family of linker options Linker Optimization Features Elimination of common section groups Elimination of unused sections Optimization with RW data compression How the linker chooses a compressor Options available to override the compression algo How compression is applied Considerations when working with RW data compressi Function inlining with the linker Factors that influence function inlining About branches that optimize to a NOP Linker reordering of tail calling sections Restrictions on reordering of tail calling section Linker merging of comment sections Merging identical constants Accessing and Managing Symbols with armlink About mapping symbols Linker-defined symbols Region-related symbols Types of region-related symbols Image$$ execution region symbols Load$$ execution region symbols Load$$LR$$ load region symbols Region name values when not scatter-loading Linker defined symbols and scatter files Methods of importing linker-defined symbols in C a Methods of importing linker-defined symbols in Arm Section-related symbols Types of section-related symbols Image symbols Input section symbols Access symbols in another image Creating a symdefs file Outputting a subset of the global symbols Reading a symdefs file Symdefs file format Edit the symbol tables with a steering file Specifying steering files on the linker command-li Steering file command summary Steering file format Hide and rename global symbols with a steering fil Use of $Super$$ and $Sub$$ to patch symbol definit Scatter-loading Features The scatter-loading mechanism Overview of scatter-loading When to use scatter-loading Linker-defined symbols that are not defined when s Placing the stack and heap with a scatter file Scatter-loading command-line options Scatter-loading images with a simple memory map Scatter-loading images with a complex memory map Root region and the initial entry point Effect of the ABSOLUTE attribute on a root region Effect of the FIXED attribute on a root region Methods of placing functions and data at specific Placing functions and data in a named section Placing __at sections at a specific address Restrictions on placing __at sections Automatically placing __at sections Manually placing __at sections Placing a key in flash memory with an __at section Example of how to explicitly place a named section Placement of unassigned sections Default rules for placing unassigned sections Command-line options for controlling the placement Prioritizing the placement of unassigned sections Specify the maximum region size permitted for plac Examples of using placement algorithms for .ANY se Example of next_fit algorithm showing behavior of Examples of using sorting algorithms for .ANY sect Behavior when .ANY sections overflow because of li Placing veneers with a scatter file Placement of CMSE veneer sections for a Secure ima Reserving an empty block of memory Characteristics of a reserved empty block of memor Example of reserving an empty block of memory Placement of Arm C and C++ library code Placing code in a root region Placing Arm C library code Placing Arm C++ library code Aligning regions to page boundaries Aligning execution regions and input sections Preprocessing a scatter file Default behavior for armclang -E in a scatter file Using other preprocessors in a scatter file Example of using expression evaluation in a scatte Equivalent scatter-loading descriptions for simple Command-line options for creating simple images Type 1 image, one load region and contiguous execu Type 2 image, one load region and non-contiguous e Type 3 image, multiple load regions and non-contig How the linker resolves multiple matches when proc How the linker resolves path names when processing Scatter file to ELF mapping Scatter File Syntax BNF notation used in scatter-loading description s Syntax of a scatter file Load region descriptions Components of a load region description Syntax of a load region description Load region attributes Inheritance rules for load region address attribut Inheritance rules for the RELOC address attribute Considerations when using a relative address +offs Execution region descriptions Components of an execution region description Syntax of an execution region description Execution region attributes Inheritance rules for execution region address att Considerations when using a relative address +offs Input section descriptions Components of an input section description Syntax of an input section description Examples of module and input section specification Expression evaluation in scatter files Expression usage in scatter files Expression rules in scatter files Execution address built-in functions for use in sc ScatterAssert function and load address related fu Symbol related function in a scatter file AlignExpr(expr, align) function GetPageSize() function SizeOfHeaders() function Example of aligning a base address in execution sp Scatter files containing relative base address loa BPABI and SysV Shared Libraries and Executables About the Base Platform Application Binary Interfa Platforms supported by the BPABI Features common to all BPABI models About importing and exporting symbols for BPABI mo Symbol visibility for BPABI models Automatic import and export for BPABI models Manual import and export for BPABI models Symbol versioning for BPABI models RW compression for BPABI models SysV linking model SysV standard memory model Using the C and C++ libraries Using a dynamic Linker Automatic dynamic symbol table rules in the SysV l Symbol definitions defined for SysV compatibility Addressing modes in the SysV linking model Thread local storage in the SysV linking model Linker command-line options for the SysV linking m Bare metal and DLL-like memory models BPABI standard memory model Customization of the BPABI standard memory model Linker command-line options for bare metal and DLL Mandatory symbol versioning in the BPABI DLL-like Automatic dynamic symbol table rules in the BPABI Addressing modes in the BPABI DLL-like model C++ initialization in the BPABI DLL-like model Symbol versioning Overview of symbol versioning Embedded symbols The symbol versioning script file Example of creating versioned symbols Linker options for enabling implicit symbol versio Features of the Base Platform Linking Model Restrictions on the use of scatter files with the Scatter files for the Base Platform linking model Placement of PLT sequences with the Base Platform Linker Steering File Command Reference EXPORT steering file command HIDE steering file command IMPORT steering file command RENAME steering file command REQUIRE steering file command RESOLVE steering file command SHOW steering file command fromelf Reference armar Reference armasm Legacy Assembler Reference Appendixes

Placement of CMSE veneer sections for a Secure image

C6.6 Placement of CMSE veneer sections for a Secure image

armlink automatically generates all CMSE veneer sections for a Secure image.

The linker:

  • Creates __at sections that are called Veneer$$CMSE_AT_address for secure gateway veneers that you specify in a user-defined input import library.
  • Produces one normal section Veneer$$CMSE to hold all other secure gateway veneers.

Placement of secure gateway veneers generated from input import libraries

The following example shows the placement of secure gateway veneers for functions entry1 and entry2 that are specified in the input import library:

...

** Section #4 'ER$$Veneer$$CMSE_AT_0x00004000' (SHT_PROGBITS) [SHF_ALLOC + SHF_EXECINSTR + SHF_ARM_NOREAD]
    Size   : 32 bytes (alignment 32)
    Address: 0x00004000

    $t
    entry1
        0x00004000:    e97fe97f    ....    SG        ; [0x3e08]
        0x00004004:    f004b85a    ..Z.    B.W      __acle_se_entry1 ; 0x80bc
    entry2
        0x00004008:    e97fe97f    ....    SG        ; [0x3e10]
        0x0000400c:    f004b868    ..h.    B.W      __acle_se_entry2 ; 0x80e0

...

The same rules and options that apply to normal __at sections apply to __at sections created for secure gateway veneers. The same rules and options also apply to the automatic placement of these sections when you specify --autoat.

Placement of secure gateway veneers that are not specified in the input import library

Secure gateway veneers that do not have their addresses specified in an input import library get generated in the Veneer$$CMSE input section. You must place this section as required. If you create a simple image, that is without using a scatter file, the sections get placed in the ER_XO execution region, and the respective ER_XO output section.

The following example shows the placement of secure gateway veneers for functions entry3 and entry4 that are not specified in the input import library:

...

** Section #1 'ER_XO' (SHT_PROGBITS) [SHF_ALLOC + SHF_EXECINSTR + SHF_ARM_NOREAD]
    Size   : 32 bytes (alignment 32)
    Address: 0x00008000

    $t
    entry3
        0x00008000:    e97fe97f    ....    SG
        0x00008004:    f000b87e    ..~.    B.W      __acle_se_entry3 ; 0x8104
    entry4
        0x00008008:    e97fe97f    ....    SG
        0x0000800c:    f000b894    ....    B.W      __acle_se_entry4 ; 0x8138

...

Placement of secure gateway veneers with a scatter file

To make sure all the secure gateway veneers are in a single section, you must place them using a scatter file.

Secure gateway veneers that are not specified in the input import library are new veneers. New veneers get generated in the Veneer$$CMSE input section. You can place this section in the scatter file as required. Veneers that are already present in the input import library are placed at the address that is specified in this library. This placement is done by creating Veneer$$CMSE_AT_address sections for them. These sections use the same facility that is used by other AT sections. Therefore, if you use --no_autoat, you can place these sections either by using the --autoat mechanism or by manually placing them using a scatter file.

For a Non-secure callable region of size 0x1000 bytes with a base address of 0x4000 a suitable example of a scatter file load and execution region to match the veneers is:

LOAD_NSCR 0x4000 0x1000
{
    EXEC_NSCR 0x4000 0x1000
    {
        *(Veneer$$CMSE)
    }
}

The secure gateway veneers are placed as follows:

...

** Section #7 'EXEC_NSCR' (SHT_PROGBITS) [SHF_ALLOC + SHF_EXECINSTR + SHF_ARM_NOREAD]
    Size   : 64 bytes (alignment 32)
    Address: 0x00004000

    $t
    entry1
        0x00004000:    e97fe97f    ....    SG
        0x00004004:    f7fcb850    ..P.    B        __acle_se_entry1 ; 0xa8
    entry2
        0x00004008:    e97fe97f    ....    SG
        0x0000400c:    f7fcb85e    ..^.    B        __acle_se_entry2 ; 0xcc

...

    entry3
        0x00004020:    e97fe97f    ....    SG
        0x00004024:    f7fcb864    ..d.    B        __acle_se_entry3 ; 0xf0
    entry4
        0x00004028:    e97fe97f    ....    SG
        0x0000402c:    f7fcb87a    ..z.    B        __acle_se_entry4 ; 0x124

...
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