Keil Logo

Technical Support

On-Line Manuals

Compiler Reference Guide

Preface Arm Compiler Tools Overview armclang Reference armlink Reference armlink Command-line Options --any_contingency --any_placement=algorithm --any_sort_order=order --api, --no_api --autoat, --no_autoat --bare_metal_pie --base_platform --bestdebug, --no_bestdebug --blx_arm_thumb, --no_blx_arm_thumb --blx_thumb_arm, --no_blx_thumb_arm --bpabi --branchnop, --no_branchnop --callgraph, --no_callgraph --callgraph_file=filename --callgraph_output=fmt --callgraph_subset=symbol[,symbol,...] --cgfile=type --cgsymbol=type --cgundefined=type --comment_section, --no_comment_section --cppinit, --no_cppinit --cpu=list (armlink) --cpu=name (armlink) --crosser_veneershare, --no_crosser_veneershare --datacompressor=opt --debug, --no_debug --diag_error=tag[,tag,…] (armlink) --diag_remark=tag[,tag,…] (armlink) --diag_style={arm|ide|gnu} (armlink) --diag_suppress=tag[,tag,…] (armlink) --diag_warning=tag[,tag,…] (armlink) --dll --dynamic_linker=name --eager_load_debug, --no_eager_load_debug --eh_frame_hdr --edit=file_list --emit_debug_overlay_relocs --emit_debug_overlay_section --emit_non_debug_relocs --emit_relocs --entry=location --errors=filename --exceptions, --no_exceptions --export_all, --no_export_all --export_dynamic, --no_export_dynamic --filtercomment, --no_filtercomment --fini=symbol --first=section_id --force_explicit_attr --force_so_throw, --no_force_so_throw --fpic --fpu=list (armlink) --fpu=name (armlink) --got=type --gnu_linker_defined_syms --help (armlink) --import_cmse_lib_in=filename --import_cmse_lib_out=filename --import_unresolved, --no_import_unresolved --info=topic[,topic,…] (armlink) --info_lib_prefix=opt --init=symbol --inline, --no_inline --inline_type=type --inlineveneer, --no_inlineveneer input-file-list (armlink) --keep=section_id (armlink) --keep_intermediate --largeregions, --no_largeregions --last=section_id --legacyalign, --no_legacyalign --libpath=pathlist --library=name --library_security=protection --library_type=lib --list=filename --list_mapping_symbols, --no_list_mapping_symbols --load_addr_map_info, --no_load_addr_map_info --locals, --no_locals --lto, --no_lto --lto_keep_all_symbols, --no_lto_keep_all_symbols --lto_intermediate_filename --lto_level --lto_relocation_model --mangled, --unmangled --map, --no_map --max_er_extension=size --max_veneer_passes=value --max_visibility=type --merge, --no_merge --merge_litpools, --no_merge_litpools --muldefweak, --no_muldefweak -o filename, --output=filename (armlink) --output_float_abi=option --overlay_veneers --override_visibility -Omax (armlink) --pad=num --paged --pagesize=pagesize --partial --pie --piveneer, --no_piveneer --pixolib --pltgot=type --pltgot_opts=mode --predefine="string" --preinit, --no_preinit --privacy (armlink) --ref_cpp_init, --no_ref_cpp_init --ref_pre_init, --no_ref_pre_init --reloc --remarks --remove, --no_remove --ro_base=address --ropi --rosplit --rw_base=address --rwpi --scanlib, --no_scanlib --scatter=filename --section_index_display=type --shared --show_cmdline (armlink) --show_full_path --show_parent_lib --show_sec_idx --soname=name --sort=algorithm --split --startup=symbol, --no_startup --stdlib --strict --strict_flags, --no_strict_flags --strict_ph, --no_strict_ph --strict_preserve8_require8 --strict_relocations, --no_strict_relocations --strict_symbols, --no_strict_symbols --strict_visibility, --no_strict_visibility --symbols, --no_symbols --symdefs=filename --symver_script=filename --symver_soname --sysv --tailreorder, --no_tailreorder --tiebreaker=option --unaligned_access, --no_unaligned_access --undefined=symbol --undefined_and_export=symbol --unresolved=symbol --use_definition_visibility --userlibpath=pathlist --veneerinject, --no_veneerinject --veneer_inject_type=type --veneer_pool_size=size --veneershare, --no_veneershare --verbose --version_number (armlink) --via=filename (armlink) --vsn (armlink) --xo_base=address --xref, --no_xref --xrefdbg, --no_xrefdbg --xref{from|to}=object(section) --zi_base=address Linking Models Supported by armlink Overview of linking models Bare-metal linking model overview Partial linking model overview Base Platform Application Binary Interface (BPABI) Base Platform linking model overview SysV linking model overview Concepts common to both BPABI and SysV linking mod Image Structure and Generation The structure of an Arm ELF image Views of the image at each link stage Input sections, output sections, regions, and prog Load view and execution view of an image Methods of specifying an image memory map with the Image entry points Restrictions on image structure Simple images Types of simple image Type 1 image structure, one load region and contig Type 2 image structure, one load region and non-co Type 3 image structure, multiple load regions and Section placement with the linker Default section placement Section placement with the FIRST and LAST attribut Section alignment with the linker Linker support for creating demand-paged files Linker reordering of execution regions containing Linker-generated veneers What is a veneer? Veneer sharing Veneer types Generation of position independent to absolute ven Reuse of veneers when scatter-loading Generation of secure gateway veneers Command-line options used to control the generatio Weak references and definitions How the linker performs library searching, selecti How the linker searches for the Arm standard libra Specifying user libraries when linking How the linker resolves references The strict family of linker options Linker Optimization Features Elimination of common section groups Elimination of unused sections Optimization with RW data compression How the linker chooses a compressor Options available to override the compression algo How compression is applied Considerations when working with RW data compressi Function inlining with the linker Factors that influence function inlining About branches that optimize to a NOP Linker reordering of tail calling sections Restrictions on reordering of tail calling section Linker merging of comment sections Merging identical constants Accessing and Managing Symbols with armlink About mapping symbols Linker-defined symbols Region-related symbols Types of region-related symbols Image$$ execution region symbols Load$$ execution region symbols Load$$LR$$ load region symbols Region name values when not scatter-loading Linker defined symbols and scatter files Methods of importing linker-defined symbols in C a Methods of importing linker-defined symbols in Arm Section-related symbols Types of section-related symbols Image symbols Input section symbols Access symbols in another image Creating a symdefs file Outputting a subset of the global symbols Reading a symdefs file Symdefs file format Edit the symbol tables with a steering file Specifying steering files on the linker command-li Steering file command summary Steering file format Hide and rename global symbols with a steering fil Use of $Super$$ and $Sub$$ to patch symbol definit Scatter-loading Features The scatter-loading mechanism Overview of scatter-loading When to use scatter-loading Linker-defined symbols that are not defined when s Placing the stack and heap with a scatter file Scatter-loading command-line options Scatter-loading images with a simple memory map Scatter-loading images with a complex memory map Root region and the initial entry point Effect of the ABSOLUTE attribute on a root region Effect of the FIXED attribute on a root region Methods of placing functions and data at specific Placing functions and data in a named section Placing __at sections at a specific address Restrictions on placing __at sections Automatically placing __at sections Manually placing __at sections Placing a key in flash memory with an __at section Example of how to explicitly place a named section Placement of unassigned sections Default rules for placing unassigned sections Command-line options for controlling the placement Prioritizing the placement of unassigned sections Specify the maximum region size permitted for plac Examples of using placement algorithms for .ANY se Example of next_fit algorithm showing behavior of Examples of using sorting algorithms for .ANY sect Behavior when .ANY sections overflow because of li Placing veneers with a scatter file Placement of CMSE veneer sections for a Secure ima Reserving an empty block of memory Characteristics of a reserved empty block of memor Example of reserving an empty block of memory Placement of Arm C and C++ library code Placing code in a root region Placing Arm C library code Placing Arm C++ library code Aligning regions to page boundaries Aligning execution regions and input sections Preprocessing a scatter file Default behavior for armclang -E in a scatter file Using other preprocessors in a scatter file Example of using expression evaluation in a scatte Equivalent scatter-loading descriptions for simple Command-line options for creating simple images Type 1 image, one load region and contiguous execu Type 2 image, one load region and non-contiguous e Type 3 image, multiple load regions and non-contig How the linker resolves multiple matches when proc How the linker resolves path names when processing Scatter file to ELF mapping Scatter File Syntax BNF notation used in scatter-loading description s Syntax of a scatter file Load region descriptions Components of a load region description Syntax of a load region description Load region attributes Inheritance rules for load region address attribut Inheritance rules for the RELOC address attribute Considerations when using a relative address +offs Execution region descriptions Components of an execution region description Syntax of an execution region description Execution region attributes Inheritance rules for execution region address att Considerations when using a relative address +offs Input section descriptions Components of an input section description Syntax of an input section description Examples of module and input section specification Expression evaluation in scatter files Expression usage in scatter files Expression rules in scatter files Execution address built-in functions for use in sc ScatterAssert function and load address related fu Symbol related function in a scatter file AlignExpr(expr, align) function GetPageSize() function SizeOfHeaders() function Example of aligning a base address in execution sp Scatter files containing relative base address loa BPABI and SysV Shared Libraries and Executables About the Base Platform Application Binary Interfa Platforms supported by the BPABI Features common to all BPABI models About importing and exporting symbols for BPABI mo Symbol visibility for BPABI models Automatic import and export for BPABI models Manual import and export for BPABI models Symbol versioning for BPABI models RW compression for BPABI models SysV linking model SysV standard memory model Using the C and C++ libraries Using a dynamic Linker Automatic dynamic symbol table rules in the SysV l Symbol definitions defined for SysV compatibility Addressing modes in the SysV linking model Thread local storage in the SysV linking model Linker command-line options for the SysV linking m Bare metal and DLL-like memory models BPABI standard memory model Customization of the BPABI standard memory model Linker command-line options for bare metal and DLL Mandatory symbol versioning in the BPABI DLL-like Automatic dynamic symbol table rules in the BPABI Addressing modes in the BPABI DLL-like model C++ initialization in the BPABI DLL-like model Symbol versioning Overview of symbol versioning Embedded symbols The symbol versioning script file Example of creating versioned symbols Linker options for enabling implicit symbol versio Features of the Base Platform Linking Model Restrictions on the use of scatter files with the Scatter files for the Base Platform linking model Placement of PLT sequences with the Base Platform Linker Steering File Command Reference EXPORT steering file command HIDE steering file command IMPORT steering file command RENAME steering file command REQUIRE steering file command RESOLVE steering file command SHOW steering file command fromelf Reference armar Reference armasm Legacy Assembler Reference Appendixes

Syntax of an input section description

C7.5.2 Syntax of an input section description

An input section description specifies what input sections are loaded into the parent execution region.

The syntax of an input section description, in Backus-Naur Form (BNF), is:

input_section_description ::= 
                module_select_pattern [ "(" input_section_selector ( "," input_section_selector )* ")" ]

input_section_selector ::=
                "+" input_section_attr |
                input_section_pattern |
                input_section_type |
                input_symbol_pattern |
                section_properties

Where:

module_select_pattern

A pattern that is constructed from literal text. An input section matches a module selector pattern when module_select_pattern matches one of the following:

  • The name of the object file containing the section.
  • The name of the library member (without leading path name).
  • The full name of the library (including path name) the section is extracted from. If the names contain spaces, use wild characters to simplify searching. For example, use *libname.lib to match C:\lib dir\libname.lib.

The wildcard character * matches zero or more characters and ? matches any single character.

Matching is not case-sensitive, even on hosts with case-sensitive file naming.

Use *.o to match all objects. Use * to match all object files and libraries.

You can use quoted filenames, for example "file one.o".

You cannot have two * selectors in a scatter file. You can, however, use two modified selectors, for example *A and *B, and you can use a .ANY selector together with a * module selector. The * module selector has higher precedence than .ANY. If the portion of the file containing the * selector is removed, the .ANY selector then becomes active.

input_section_attr

An attribute selector that is matched against the input section attributes. Each input_section_attr follows a +.

The selectors are not case-sensitive. The following selectors are recognized:

  • RO-CODE.
  • RO-DATA.
  • RO, selects both RO-CODE and RO-DATA.
  • RW-DATA.
  • RW-CODE.
  • RW, selects both RW-CODE and RW-DATA.
  • XO.
  • ZI.
  • ENTRY, that is, a section containing an ENTRY point.

The following synonyms are recognized:

  • CODE for RO-CODE.
  • CONST for RO-DATA.
  • TEXT for RO.
  • DATA for RW.
  • BSS for ZI.

The following pseudo-attributes are recognized:

  • FIRST.
  • LAST.

Use FIRST and LAST to mark the first and last sections in an execution region if the placement order is important. For example, if a specific input section must be first in the region and an input section containing a checksum must be last.

Caution:

FIRST and LAST must not violate the basic attribute sorting order. For example, FIRST RW is placed after any read-only code or read-only data.

There can be only one FIRST or one LAST attribute for an execution region, and it must follow a single input_section_selector. For example:

*(section, +FIRST)
This pattern is correct.
*(+FIRST, section)
This pattern is incorrect and produces an error message.
input_section_pattern

A pattern that is matched, without case sensitivity, against the input section name. It is constructed from literal text. The wildcard character * matches 0 or more characters, and ? matches any single character. You can use a quoted input section name.

Note:

If you use more than one input_section_pattern, ensure that there are no duplicate patterns in different execution regions to avoid ambiguity errors.
input_section_type
A number that is compared against the input section type. The number can be decimal or hexadecimal.
input_symbol_pattern

You can select the input section by the global symbol name that the section defines. The global name enables you to choose individual sections with the same name from partially linked objects.

The :gdef: prefix distinguishes a global symbol pattern from a section pattern. For example, use :gdef:mysym to select the section that defines mysym. The following example shows a scatter file in which ExecReg1 contains the section that defines global symbol mysym1, and the section that contains global symbol mysym2:

LoadRegion 0x8000
{
    ExecReg1 +0
    {
        *(:gdef:mysym1)
        *(:gdef:mysym2)
    }
    ; rest of scatter-loading description
}

You can use a quoted global symbol pattern. The :gdef: prefix can be inside or outside the quotes.

Note:

If you use more than one input_symbol_pattern, ensure that there are no duplicate patterns in different execution regions to avoid ambiguity errors.
section_properties

A section property can be +FIRST, +LAST, and OVERALIGN value.

The value for OVERALIGN must be a positive power of 2 and must be greater than or equal to 4.

Note:

  • The order of input section descriptors is not significant.
  • Only input sections that match both module_select_pattern and at least one input_section_attr or input_section_pattern are included in the execution region.

    If you omit (+ input_section_attr) and (input_section_pattern), the default is +RO.

  • Do not rely on input section names that the compiler generates, or that are used by Arm® library code. If, for example, different compiler options are used, the input section names can change between compilations. In addition, section naming conventions that are used by the compiler are not guaranteed to remain constant between releases.
  • The BNF definitions contain extra line returns and spaces to improve readability. If present in a scatter file, they are not required in scatter-loading descriptions and are ignored.
Non-ConfidentialPDF file icon PDF version101754_0613_00_en
Copyright © 2019 Arm Limited or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 
  Arm logo
Important information

This site uses cookies to store information on your computer. By continuing to use our site, you consent to our cookies.

Change Settings

Privacy Policy Update

Arm’s Privacy Policy has been updated. By continuing to use our site, you consent to Arm’s Privacy Policy. Please review our Privacy Policy to learn more about our collection, use and transfers
of your data.