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Preface Arm Compiler Tools Overview armclang Reference armlink Reference armlink Command-line Options --any_contingency --any_placement=algorithm --any_sort_order=order --api, --no_api --autoat, --no_autoat --bare_metal_pie --base_platform --be8 --be32 --bestdebug, --no_bestdebug --blx_arm_thumb, --no_blx_arm_thumb --blx_thumb_arm, --no_blx_thumb_arm --bpabi --branchnop, --no_branchnop --callgraph, --no_callgraph --callgraph_file=filename --callgraph_output=fmt --callgraph_subset=symbol[,symbol,...] --cgfile=type --cgsymbol=type --cgundefined=type --comment_section, --no_comment_section --cppinit, --no_cppinit --cpu=list (armlink) --cpu=name (armlink) --crosser_veneershare, --no_crosser_veneershare --datacompressor=opt --debug, --no_debug --diag_error=tag[,tag,…] (armlink) --diag_remark=tag[,tag,…] (armlink) --diag_style={arm|ide|gnu} (armlink) --diag_suppress=tag[,tag,…] (armlink) --diag_warning=tag[,tag,…] (armlink) --dll --dynamic_linker=name --eager_load_debug, --no_eager_load_debug --eh_frame_hdr --edit=file_list --emit_debug_overlay_relocs --emit_debug_overlay_section --emit_non_debug_relocs --emit_relocs --entry=location --errors=filename --exceptions, --no_exceptions --export_all, --no_export_all --export_dynamic, --no_export_dynamic --filtercomment, --no_filtercomment --fini=symbol --first=section_id --force_explicit_attr --force_so_throw, --no_force_so_throw --fpic --fpu=list (armlink) --fpu=name (armlink) --got=type --gnu_linker_defined_syms --help (armlink) --import_cmse_lib_in=filename --import_cmse_lib_out=filename --import_unresolved, --no_import_unresolved --info=topic[,topic,…] (armlink) --info_lib_prefix=opt --init=symbol --inline, --no_inline --inline_type=type --inlineveneer, --no_inlineveneer input-file-list (armlink) --keep=section_id (armlink) --keep_intermediate --largeregions, --no_largeregions --last=section_id --legacyalign, --no_legacyalign --libpath=pathlist --library=name --library_security=protection --library_type=lib --list=filename --list_mapping_symbols, --no_list_mapping_symbols --load_addr_map_info, --no_load_addr_map_info --locals, --no_locals --lto, --no_lto --lto_keep_all_symbols, --no_lto_keep_all_symbols --lto_intermediate_filename --lto_level --lto_relocation_model --mangled, --unmangled --map, --no_map --max_er_extension=size --max_veneer_passes=value --max_visibility=type --merge, --no_merge --merge_litpools, --no_merge_litpools --muldefweak, --no_muldefweak -o filename, --output=filename (armlink) --output_float_abi=option --overlay_veneers --override_visibility -Omax (armlink) --pad=num --paged --pagesize=pagesize --partial --pie --piveneer, --no_piveneer --pixolib --pltgot=type --pltgot_opts=mode --predefine="string" --preinit, --no_preinit --privacy (armlink) --ref_cpp_init, --no_ref_cpp_init --ref_pre_init, --no_ref_pre_init --reloc --remarks --remove, --no_remove --ro_base=address --ropi --rosplit --rw_base=address --rwpi --scanlib, --no_scanlib --scatter=filename --section_index_display=type --shared --show_cmdline (armlink) --show_full_path --show_parent_lib --show_sec_idx --soname=name --sort=algorithm --split --startup=symbol, --no_startup --stdlib --strict --strict_flags, --no_strict_flags --strict_ph, --no_strict_ph --strict_preserve8_require8 --strict_relocations, --no_strict_relocations --strict_symbols, --no_strict_symbols --strict_visibility, --no_strict_visibility --symbols, --no_symbols --symdefs=filename --symver_script=filename --symver_soname --sysv --tailreorder, --no_tailreorder --tiebreaker=option --unaligned_access, --no_unaligned_access --undefined=symbol --undefined_and_export=symbol --unresolved=symbol --use_definition_visibility --userlibpath=pathlist --veneerinject, --no_veneerinject --veneer_inject_type=type --veneer_pool_size=size --veneershare, --no_veneershare --verbose --version_number (armlink) --via=filename (armlink) --vsn (armlink) --xo_base=address --xref, --no_xref --xrefdbg, --no_xrefdbg --xref{from|to}=object(section) --zi_base=address Linking Models Supported by armlink Overview of linking models Bare-metal linking model overview Partial linking model overview Base Platform Application Binary Interface (BPABI) Base Platform linking model overview SysV linking model overview Concepts common to both BPABI and SysV linking mod Image Structure and Generation The structure of an Arm ELF image Views of the image at each link stage Input sections, output sections, regions, and prog Load view and execution view of an image Methods of specifying an image memory map with the Image entry points Restrictions on image structure Simple images Types of simple image Type 1 image structure, one load region and contig Type 2 image structure, one load region and non-co Type 3 image structure, multiple load regions and Section placement with the linker Default section placement Section placement with the FIRST and LAST attribut Section alignment with the linker Linker support for creating demand-paged files Linker reordering of execution regions containing Linker-generated veneers What is a veneer? Veneer sharing Veneer types Generation of position independent to absolute ven Reuse of veneers when scatter-loading Generation of secure gateway veneers Command-line options used to control the generatio Weak references and definitions How the linker performs library searching, selecti How the linker searches for the Arm standard libra Specifying user libraries when linking How the linker resolves references The strict family of linker options Linker Optimization Features Elimination of common section groups Elimination of unused sections Optimization with RW data compression How the linker chooses a compressor Options available to override the compression algo How compression is applied Considerations when working with RW data compressi Function inlining with the linker Factors that influence function inlining About branches that optimize to a NOP Linker reordering of tail calling sections Restrictions on reordering of tail calling section Linker merging of comment sections Merging identical constants Accessing and Managing Symbols with armlink About mapping symbols Linker-defined symbols Region-related symbols Types of region-related symbols Image$$ execution region symbols Load$$ execution region symbols Load$$LR$$ load region symbols Region name values when not scatter-loading Linker defined symbols and scatter files Methods of importing linker-defined symbols in C a Methods of importing linker-defined symbols in Arm Section-related symbols Types of section-related symbols Image symbols Input section symbols Access symbols in another image Creating a symdefs file Outputting a subset of the global symbols Reading a symdefs file Symdefs file format Edit the symbol tables with a steering file Specifying steering files on the linker command-li Steering file command summary Steering file format Hide and rename global symbols with a steering fil Use of $Super$$ and $Sub$$ to patch symbol definit Scatter-loading Features The scatter-loading mechanism Overview of scatter-loading When to use scatter-loading Linker-defined symbols that are not defined when s Placing the stack and heap with a scatter file Scatter-loading command-line options Scatter-loading images with a simple memory map Scatter-loading images with a complex memory map Root region and the initial entry point Effect of the ABSOLUTE attribute on a root region Effect of the FIXED attribute on a root region Methods of placing functions and data at specific Placing functions and data in a named section Placing __at sections at a specific address Restrictions on placing __at sections Automatically placing __at sections Manually placing __at sections Placing a key in flash memory with an __at section Example of how to explicitly place a named section Placement of unassigned sections Default rules for placing unassigned sections Command-line options for controlling the placement Prioritizing the placement of unassigned sections Specify the maximum region size permitted for plac Examples of using placement algorithms for .ANY se Example of next_fit algorithm showing behavior of Examples of using sorting algorithms for .ANY sect Behavior when .ANY sections overflow because of li Placing veneers with a scatter file Placement of CMSE veneer sections for a Secure ima Reserving an empty block of memory Characteristics of a reserved empty block of memor Example of reserving an empty block of memory Placement of Arm C and C++ library code Placing code in a root region Placing Arm C library code Placing Arm C++ library code Aligning regions to page boundaries Aligning execution regions and input sections Preprocessing a scatter file Default behavior for armclang -E in a scatter file Using other preprocessors in a scatter file Example of using expression evaluation in a scatte Equivalent scatter-loading descriptions for simple Command-line options for creating simple images Type 1 image, one load region and contiguous execu Type 2 image, one load region and non-contiguous e Type 3 image, multiple load regions and non-contig How the linker resolves multiple matches when proc How the linker resolves path names when processing Scatter file to ELF mapping Scatter File Syntax BNF notation used in scatter-loading description s Syntax of a scatter file Load region descriptions Components of a load region description Syntax of a load region description Load region attributes Inheritance rules for load region address attribut Inheritance rules for the RELOC address attribute Considerations when using a relative address +offs Execution region descriptions Components of an execution region description Syntax of an execution region description Execution region attributes Inheritance rules for execution region address att Considerations when using a relative address +offs Input section descriptions Components of an input section description Syntax of an input section description Examples of module and input section specification Expression evaluation in scatter files Expression usage in scatter files Expression rules in scatter files Execution address built-in functions for use in sc ScatterAssert function and load address related fu Symbol related function in a scatter file AlignExpr(expr, align) function GetPageSize() function SizeOfHeaders() function Example of aligning a base address in execution sp Scatter files containing relative base address loa BPABI and SysV Shared Libraries and Executables About the Base Platform Application Binary Interfa Platforms supported by the BPABI Features common to all BPABI models About importing and exporting symbols for BPABI mo Symbol visibility for BPABI models Automatic import and export for BPABI models Manual import and export for BPABI models Symbol versioning for BPABI models RW compression for BPABI models SysV linking model SysV standard memory model Using the C and C++ libraries Using a dynamic Linker Automatic dynamic symbol table rules in the SysV l Symbol definitions defined for SysV compatibility Addressing modes in the SysV linking model Thread local storage in the SysV linking model Linker command-line options for the SysV linking m Bare metal and DLL-like memory models BPABI standard memory model Customization of the BPABI standard memory model Linker command-line options for bare metal and DLL Mandatory symbol versioning in the BPABI DLL-like Automatic dynamic symbol table rules in the BPABI Addressing modes in the BPABI DLL-like model C++ initialization in the BPABI DLL-like model Symbol versioning Overview of symbol versioning Embedded symbols The symbol versioning script file Example of creating versioned symbols Linker options for enabling implicit symbol versio Features of the Base Platform Linking Model Restrictions on the use of scatter files with the Scatter files for the Base Platform linking model Placement of PLT sequences with the Base Platform Linker Steering File Command Reference EXPORT steering file command HIDE steering file command IMPORT steering file command RENAME steering file command REQUIRE steering file command RESOLVE steering file command SHOW steering file command fromelf Reference armar Reference armasm Legacy Assembler Reference Appendixes

Effect of the FIXED attribute on a root region

C6.2.2 Effect of the FIXED attribute on a root region

You can use the FIXED attribute for an execution region in a scatter file to create root regions that load and execute at fixed addresses.

Use the FIXED execution region attribute to ensure that the load address and execution address of a specific region are the same.

You can use the FIXED attribute to place any execution region at a specific address in ROM.

For example, the following memory map shows fixed execution regions:

Figure C6-3 Memory map for fixed execution regions
Memory map for fixed execution regions

The following example shows the corresponding scatter-loading description:

LR_1 0x040000              ; load region starts at 0x40000   
{                          ; start of execution region descriptions      
    ER_RO 0x040000         ; load address = execution address
    {
        * (+RO)            ; RO sections other than those in init.o
    }
    ER_INIT 0x080000 FIXED ; load address and execution address of this
                           ; execution region are fixed at 0x80000
    {
        init.o(+RO)        ; all RO sections from init.o
    }
    …                    ; rest of scatter-loading description
}

You can use this attribute to place a function or a block of data, for example a constant table or a checksum, at a fixed address in ROM. This makes it easier to access the function or block of data through pointers.

If you place two separate blocks of code or data at the start and end of ROM, some of the memory contents might be unused. For example, you might place some initialization code at the start of ROM and a checksum at the end of ROM. Use the * or .ANY module selector to flood fill the region between the end of the initialization block and the start of the data block.

To make your code easier to maintain and debug, use the minimum number of placement specifications in scatter files. Leave the detailed placement of functions and data to the linker.

Note:

There are some situations where using FIXED and a single load region are not appropriate. Other techniques for specifying fixed locations are:

  • If your loader can handle multiple load regions, place the RO code or data in its own load region.
  • If you do not require the function or data to be at a fixed location in ROM, use ABSOLUTE instead of FIXED. The loader then copies the data from the load region to the specified address in RAM. ABSOLUTE is the default attribute.
  • To place a data structure at the location of memory-mapped I/O, use two load regions and specify UNINIT. UNINIT ensures that the memory locations are not initialized to zero.

Example showing the misuse of the FIXED attribute

The following example shows common cases where the FIXED execution region attribute is misused:

LR1 0x8000
{
    ER_LOW +0 0x1000
    {
        *(+RO)
    }
; At this point the next available Load and Execution address is 0x8000 + size of
; contents of ER_LOW. The maximum size is limited to 0x1000 so the next available Load
; and Execution address is at most 0x9000
    ER_HIGH 0xF0000000 FIXED
    {
        *(+RW,+ZI)
    }
; The required execution address and load address is 0xF0000000. The linker inserts
; 0xF0000000 - (0x8000 + size of(ER_LOW)) bytes of padding so that load address matches
; execution address
}
; The other common misuse of FIXED is to give a lower execution address than the next
; available load address.
LR_HIGH 0x100000000
{
    ER_LOW 0x1000 FIXED
    {
        *(+RO)
    }
; The next available load address in LR_HIGH is 0x10000000. The required Execution
; address is 0x1000. Because the next available load address in LR_HIGH must increase
; monotonically the linker cannot give ER_LOW a Load Address lower than 0x10000000
}
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