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Preface Overview of the Compiler Getting Started with the Compiler Compiler Features Compiler Coding Practices Compiler Diagnostic Messages Using the Inline and Embedded Assemblers of the AR Compiler Command-line Options Language Extensions Compiler-specific Features Keywords and operators __align __ALIGNOF__ __alignof__ __asm __forceinline __global_reg __inline __int64 __INTADDR__ __irq __packed __pure __smc __softfp __svc __svc_indirect __svc_indirect_r7 __value_in_regs __weak __writeonly __declspec attributes __declspec(noinline) __declspec(noreturn) __declspec(nothrow) __declspec(notshared) __declspec(thread) Function attributes __attribute__((alias)) function attribute __attribute__((always_inline)) function attribute __attribute__((const)) function attribute __attribute__((deprecated)) function attribute __attribute__((destructor[(priority)])) function a __attribute__((format)) function attribute __attribute__((format_arg(string-index))) function __attribute__((malloc)) function attribute __attribute__((noinline)) function attribute __attribute__((no_instrument_function)) function a __attribute__((nomerge)) function attribute __attribute__((nonnull)) function attribute __attribute__((noreturn)) function attribute __attribute__((notailcall)) function attribute __attribute__((nothrow)) function attribute __attribute__((pcs("calling_convention"))) functio __attribute__((pure)) function attribute __attribute__((section("name"))) function attribut __attribute__((sentinel)) function attribute __attribute__((unused)) function attribute __attribute__((used)) function attribute __attribute__((visibility("visibility_type"))) fun __attribute__((warn_unused_result)) __attribute__((weak)) function attribute __attribute__((weakref("target"))) function attrib Type attributes __attribute__((bitband)) type attribute __attribute__((aligned)) type attribute __attribute__((packed)) type attribute Variable attributes __attribute__((alias)) variable attribute __attribute__((at(address))) variable attribute __attribute__((aligned)) variable attribute __attribute__((deprecated)) variable attribute __attribute__((noinline)) constant variable attrib __attribute__((packed)) variable attribute __attribute__((section("name"))) variable attribut __attribute__((unused)) variable attribute __attribute__((used)) variable attribute __attribute__((visibility("visibility_type"))) var __attribute__((weak)) variable attribute __attribute__((weakref("target"))) variable attrib __attribute__((zero_init)) variable attribute Pragmas #pragma anon_unions, #pragma no_anon_unions #pragma arm #pragma arm section [section_type_list] #pragma diag_default tag[,tag,...] #pragma diag_error tag[,tag,...] #pragma diag_remark tag[,tag,...] #pragma diag_suppress tag[,tag,...] #pragma diag_warning tag[, tag, ...] #pragma exceptions_unwind, #pragma no_exceptions_u #pragma GCC system_header #pragma hdrstop #pragma import symbol_name #pragma import(__use_full_stdio) #pragma import(__use_smaller_memcpy) #pragma inline, #pragma no_inline #pragma no_pch #pragma Onum #pragma once #pragma Ospace #pragma Otime #pragma pack(n) #pragma pop #pragma push #pragma softfp_linkage, #pragma no_softfp_linkage #pragma thumb #pragma unroll [(n)] #pragma unroll_completely #pragma weak symbol, #pragma weak symbol1 = symbol Instruction intrinsics __breakpoint intrinsic __cdp intrinsic __clrex intrinsic __clz intrinsic __current_pc intrinsic __current_sp intrinsic __disable_fiq intrinsic __disable_irq intrinsic __dmb intrinsic __dsb intrinsic __enable_fiq intrinsic __enable_irq intrinsic __fabs intrinsic __fabsf intrinsic __force_loads intrinsic __force_stores intrinsic __isb intrinsic __ldrex intrinsic __ldrexd intrinsic __ldrt intrinsic __memory_changed intrinsic __nop intrinsic __pld intrinsic __pli intrinsic __qadd intrinsic __qdbl intrinsic __qsub intrinsic __rbit intrinsic __rev intrinsic __return_address intrinsic __ror intrinsic __schedule_barrier intrinsic __semihost intrinsic __sev intrinsic __sqrt intrinsic __sqrtf intrinsic __ssat intrinsic __strex intrinsic __strexd intrinsic __strt intrinsic __swp intrinsic __usat intrinsic __wfe intrinsic __wfi intrinsic __yield intrinsic ARMv6 SIMD intrinsics ETSI basic operations C55x intrinsics VFP status intrinsic __vfp_status intrinsic Fused Multiply Add (FMA) intrinsics Named register variables GNU built-in functions Predefined macros Built-in function name variables C and C++ Implementation Details What is Semihosting? Via File Syntax Summary Table of GNU Language Extensions Standard C Implementation Definition Standard C++ Implementation Definition C and C++ Compiler Implementation Limits

Named register variables

9.153 Named register variables

The compiler enables you to access registers of an ARM architecture-based processor or coprocessor using named register variables.

Syntax

register type var-name __asm(reg);
Where:
type
is the type of the named register variable.
Any type of the same size as the register being named can be used in the declaration of a named register variable. The type can be a structure, but bitfield layout is sensitive to endianness.
var-name
is the name of the named register variable.
reg
is a character string denoting the name of a register on an ARM architecture-based processor, or for coprocessor registers, a string syntax that identifies the coprocessor and corresponds with how you intend to use the variable.
Registers available for use with named register variables on ARM architecture-based processors are shown in the following table.

Table 9-19 Named registers available on ARM architecture-based processors

Register Character string for __asm Processors
APSR "apsr" All processors
CPSR "cpsr" All processors, apart from Cortex-M series processors.
BASEPRI "basepri" ARMv7-M processors
BASEPRI_MAX "basepri_max" ARMv7-M processors
CONTROL "control" ARMv6-M and ARMv7-M processors
DSP "dsp" ARMv6-M and ARMv7-M processors
EAPSR "eapsr" ARMv6-M and ARMv7-M processors
EPSR "epsr" ARMv6-M and ARMv7-M processors
FAULTMASK "faultmask" ARMv7-M processors
IAPSR "iapsr" ARMv6-M and ARMv7-M processors
IEPSR "iepsr" ARMv6-M and ARMv7-M processors
IPSR "ipsr" ARMv6-M and ARMv7-M processors
MSP "msp" ARMv6-M and ARMv7-M processors
PRIMASK "primask" ARMv6-M and ARMv7-M processors
PSP "psp" ARMv6-M and ARMv7-M processors
PSR "psr" ARMv6-M and ARMv7-M processors
r0 to r12 "r0" to "r12" All processors
r13 or sp "r13" or "sp" All processors

Note

Writing to the current stack pointer can cause unpredictable results at compile-time or run-time.
r14 or lr "r14" or "lr" All processors
r15 or pc "r15" or "pc" All processors
SPSR
"spsr"
All processors, apart from Cortex-M series processors.
XPSR "xpsr" ARMv6-M and ARMv7-M processors
On targets with floating-point hardware, the registers listed in the following table are also available for use with named register variables.

Table 9-20 Named registers available on targets with floating-point hardware

Register Character string for __asm
FPSID "fpsid"
FPSCR "fpscr"
FPEXC "fpexc"
FPINST "fpinst"
FPINST2 "fpinst2"
FPSR "fpsr"
MVFR0 "mvfr0"
MVFR1 "mvfr1"

Note

Some registers are not available on some architectures.

Usage

You must declare core registers as global rather than local named register variables. Your program might still compile if you declare them locally, but you risk unexpected runtime behavior if you do. There is no restriction on the scope of named register variables for other registers.

Note

A global named register variable is global to the source file in which it is declared, not global to the program. It has no effect on other files, unless you use multifile compilation or you declare it in a header file.

Restrictions

Declaring a core register as a named register variable means that register is not available to the compiler for other operations. If you declare too many named register variables, code size increases significantly. In some cases, your program might not compile, for example if there are insufficient registers available to compute a particular expression.
Register usage defined by the Procedure Call Standard for the ARM Architecture (AAPCS) is not affected by declaring named register variables. For example, r0 is always used to return result values from functions even if it is declared as a named register variable.
Named register variables are a compiler-only feature. With the exception of r12, tools such as linkers do not change register usage in object files. The AAPCS reserves r12 as the inter-procedural scratch register. You must not declare r12 as a named register variable if you require its value to be preserved across function calls.

Examples

In the following example, apsr is declared as a named register variable for the "apsr" register:
register unsigned int apsr __asm("apsr");
apsr = ~(~apsr | 0x40);
This generates the following instruction sequence:
MRS r0,APSR ; formerly CPSR
BIC r0,r0,#0x40
MSR CPSR_c, r0
In the following example, PMCR is declared as a register variable associated with coprocessor cp15, with CRn = c9, CRm = c12, opcode1 = 0, and opcode2 = 0, in an MCR or an MRC instruction:
register unsigned int PMCR __asm("cp15:0:c9:c12:0");
__inline void __reset_cycle_counter(void)
{
    PMCR = 4;
}
The disassembled output is as follows:
__reset_cycle_counter PROC
    MOV    r0,#4
    MCR    p15,#0x0,r0,c9,c12,#0
    BX     lr
    ENDP
In the following example, cp15_control is declared as a register variable for accessing a coprocessor register. This example enables the MMU using CP15:
register unsigned int cp15_control __asm("cp15:0:c1:c0:0");
cp15_control |= 0x1;
The following instruction sequence is generated:
MRC  p15,#0x0,r0,c1,c0,#0
ORR  r0,r0,#1
MCR  p15,#0x0,r0,c1,c0,#0
The following example for Cortex-M3 declares _msp, _control and _psp as named register variables to set up stack pointers:
register unsigned int _control __asm("control");
register unsigned int _msp     __asm("msp");
register unsigned int _psp     __asm("psp");void init(void)
{
  _msp = 0x30000000;        // set up Main Stack Pointer
  _control = _control | 3;  // switch to User Mode with Process Stack
  _psp = 0x40000000;        // set up Process Stack Pointer
}
This generates the following instruction sequence:
init
  MOV r0,#0x30000000
  MSR MSP,r0
  MRS r0,CONTROL
  ORR r0,r0,#3
  MSR CONTROL,r0
  MOV r0,#0x40000000
  MSR PSP,r0
  BX lr
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