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Compiler User Guide

Preface Overview of the Compiler Getting Started with the Compiler Compiler Features Compiler Coding Practices Compiler Diagnostic Messages Using the Inline and Embedded Assemblers of the AR Compiler support for inline assembly language Inline assembler support in the compiler Restrictions on inline assembler support in the co Inline assembly language syntax with the __asm key Inline assembly language syntax with the asm keywo Inline assembler rules for compiler keywords __asm Restrictions on inline assembly operations in C an Inline assembler register restrictions in C and C+ Inline assembler processor mode restrictions in C Inline assembler Thumb instruction set restriction Inline assembler Vector Floating-Point (VFP) restr Inline assembler instruction restrictions in C and Miscellaneous inline assembler restrictions in C a Inline assembler and register access in C and C++ Inline assembler and the # constant expression spe Inline assembler and instruction expansion in C an Expansion of inline assembler instructions that us Expansion of inline assembler load and store instr Inline assembler effect on processor condition fla Inline assembler expression operands in C and C++ Inline assembler register list operands in C and C Inline assembler intermediate operands in C and C+ Inline assembler function calls and branches in C Inline assembler branches and labels in C and C++ Inline assembler and virtual registers Embedded assembler support in the compiler Embedded assembler syntax in C and C++ Effect of compiler ARM and Thumb states on embedde Restrictions on embedded assembly language functio Compiler generation of embedded assembly language Access to C and C++ compile-time constant expressi Differences between expressions in embedded assemb Manual overload resolution in embedded assembler __offsetof_base keyword for related base classes i Compiler-supported keywords for calling class memb __mcall_is_virtual(D, f) __mcall_is_in_vbase(D, f) __mcall_offsetof_vbase(D, f) __mcall_this_offset(D, f) __vcall_offsetof_vfunc(D, f) Calling nonstatic member functions in embedded ass Calling a nonvirtual member function Calling a virtual member function Accessing sp (r13), lr (r14), and pc (r15) Differences in compiler support for inline and emb Compiler Command-line Options Language Extensions Compiler-specific Features C and C++ Implementation Details What is Semihosting? Via File Syntax Summary Table of GNU Language Extensions Standard C Implementation Definition Standard C++ Implementation Definition C and C++ Compiler Implementation Limits

Inline assembler and virtual registers

6.25 Inline assembler and virtual registers

Inline assembly code for the compiler always specifies virtual registers.

The compiler chooses the physical registers to be used for each instruction during code generation, and enables the compiler to fully optimize the assembly code and surrounding C or C++ code.
The pc (r15), lr (r14), and sp (r13) registers cannot be accessed at all. An error message is generated when these registers are accessed.
The initial values of virtual registers are undefined. Therefore, you must write to virtual registers before reading them. The compiler warns you if code reads a virtual register before writing to it. The compiler also generates these warnings for legacy code that relies on particular values in physical registers at the beginning of inline assembly code, for example:
int add(int i, int j)
{
    int res;
    __asm
    {
        ADD res, r0, r1   // relies on i passed in r0 and j passed in r1
    }
    return res;
}
This code generates warning and error messages.
The errors are generated because virtual registers r0 and r1 are read before writing to them. The warnings are generated because r0 and r1 must be defined as C or C++ variables. The corrected code is:
int add(int i, int j)
{
    int res;
    __asm
    {
        ADD res, i, j
    }
    return res;
}
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