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Assembler User Guide

Preface Overview of the Assembler Overview of the ARM Architecture Structure of Assembly Language Modules Writing ARM Assembly Language Condition Codes Using the Assembler Symbols, Literals, Expressions, and Operators VFP Programming Assembler Command-line Options ARM and Thumb Instructions ARM and Thumb instruction summary Instruction width specifiers Flexible second operand (Operand2) Syntax of Operand2 as a constant Syntax of Operand2 as a register with optional shi Shift operations Saturating instructions Condition code suffixes ADC ADD ADR (PC-relative) ADR (register-relative) ADRL pseudo-instruction AND ASR B BFC BFI BIC BKPT BL BLX BX BXJ CBZ and CBNZ CDP and CDP2 CLREX CLZ CMP and CMN CPS CPY pseudo-instruction DBG DMB DSB EOR ERET HVC ISB IT LDC and LDC2 LDM LDR (immediate offset) LDR (PC-relative) LDR (register offset) LDR (register-relative) LDR pseudo-instruction LDR, unprivileged LDREX LSL LSR MCR and MCR2 MCRR and MCRR2 MLA MLS MOV MOV32 pseudo-instruction MOVT MRC and MRC2 MRRC and MRRC2 MRS (PSR to general-purpose register) MRS (system coprocessor register to ARM register) MSR (ARM register to system coprocessor register) MSR (general-purpose register to PSR) MUL MVN NEG pseudo-instruction NOP ORN (Thumb only) ORR PKHBT and PKHTB PLD and PLI POP PUSH QADD QADD8 QADD16 QASX QDADD QDSUB QSAX QSUB QSUB8 QSUB16 RBIT REV REV16 REVSH RFE ROR RRX RSB RSC SADD8 SADD16 SASX SBC SBFX SDIV SEL SETEND SEV SHADD8 SHADD16 SHASX SHSAX SHSUB8 SHSUB16 SMC SMLAxy SMLAD SMLAL SMLALD SMLALxy SMLAWy SMLSD SMLSLD SMMLA SMMLS SMMUL SMUAD SMULxy SMULL SMULWy SMUSD SRS SSAT SSAT16 SSAX SSUB8 SSUB16 STC and STC2 STM STR (immediate offset) STR (register offset) STR, unprivileged STREX SUB SUBS pc, lr SVC SWP and SWPB SXTAB SXTAB16 SXTAH SXTB SXTB16 SXTH SYS TBB and TBH TEQ TST UADD8 UADD16 UASX UBFX UDIV UHADD8 UHADD16 UHASX UHSAX UHSUB8 UHSUB16 UMAAL UMLAL UMULL UND pseudo-instruction UQADD8 UQADD16 UQASX UQSAX UQSUB8 UQSUB16 USAD8 USADA8 USAT USAT16 USAX USUB8 USUB16 UXTAB UXTAB16 UXTAH UXTB UXTB16 UXTH WFE WFI YIELD VFP Instructions Directives Reference Via File Syntax

MRS (PSR to general-purpose register)

10.60 MRS (PSR to general-purpose register)

Move the contents of a PSR to a general-purpose register.

Syntax

MRS{cond} Rd, psr
where:
cond
is an optional condition code.
Rd
is the destination register.
psr
is one of:
APSR
on any processor, in any mode.
CPSR
deprecated synonym for APSR and for use in Debug state, on any processor except ARMv7-M and ARMv6-M.
SPSR
on any processor except ARMv7-M and ARMv6-M, in privileged software execution only.
Mpsr
on ARMv7-M and ARMv6-M processors only.
Mpsr
can be any of: IPSR, EPSR, IEPSR, IAPSR, EAPSR, MSP, PSP, XPSR, PRIMASK, BASEPRI, BASEPRI_MAX, FAULTMASK, or CONTROL.

Usage

Use MRS in combination with MSR as part of a read-modify-write sequence for updating a PSR, for example to change processor mode, or to clear the Q flag.
In process swap code, the programmers’ model state of the process being swapped out must be saved, including relevant PSR contents. Similarly, the state of the process being swapped in must also be restored. These operations make use of MRS/store and load/MSR instruction sequences.

SPSR

You must not attempt to access the SPSR when the processor is in User or System mode. This is your responsibility. The assembler cannot warn you about this, because it has no information about the processor mode at execution time.

CPSR

ARM deprecates reading the CPSR endianness bit (E) with an MRS instruction.
The CPSR execution state bits, other than the E bit, can only be read when the processor is in Debug state, halting debug-mode. Otherwise, the execution state bits in the CPSR read as zero.
The condition flags can be read in any mode on any processor. Use APSR if you are only interested in accessing the condition flags in User mode.

Register restrictions

You cannot use PC for Rd in ARM instructions. You can use SP for Rd in ARM instructions but this is deprecated in ARMv6T2 and above.
You cannot use PC or SP for Rd in Thumb instructions.

Condition flags

This instruction does not change the flags.

Architectures

This ARM instruction is available in all versions of the ARM architecture.
This 32-bit Thumb instruction is available in ARMv6T2 and above.
There is no 16-bit version of this instruction in Thumb.
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