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Assembler User Guide

Preface Overview of the Assembler Overview of the ARM Architecture Structure of Assembly Language Modules Writing ARM Assembly Language Condition Codes Using the Assembler Symbols, Literals, Expressions, and Operators VFP Programming Assembler Command-line Options ARM and Thumb Instructions ARM and Thumb instruction summary Instruction width specifiers Flexible second operand (Operand2) Syntax of Operand2 as a constant Syntax of Operand2 as a register with optional shi Shift operations Saturating instructions Condition code suffixes ADC ADD ADR (PC-relative) ADR (register-relative) ADRL pseudo-instruction AND ASR B BFC BFI BIC BKPT BL BLX BX BXJ CBZ and CBNZ CDP and CDP2 CLREX CLZ CMP and CMN CPS CPY pseudo-instruction DBG DMB DSB EOR ERET HVC ISB IT LDC and LDC2 LDM LDR (immediate offset) LDR (PC-relative) LDR (register offset) LDR (register-relative) LDR pseudo-instruction LDR, unprivileged LDREX LSL LSR MCR and MCR2 MCRR and MCRR2 MLA MLS MOV MOV32 pseudo-instruction MOVT MRC and MRC2 MRRC and MRRC2 MRS (PSR to general-purpose register) MRS (system coprocessor register to ARM register) MSR (ARM register to system coprocessor register) MSR (general-purpose register to PSR) MUL MVN NEG pseudo-instruction NOP ORN (Thumb only) ORR PKHBT and PKHTB PLD and PLI POP PUSH QADD QADD8 QADD16 QASX QDADD QDSUB QSAX QSUB QSUB8 QSUB16 RBIT REV REV16 REVSH RFE ROR RRX RSB RSC SADD8 SADD16 SASX SBC SBFX SDIV SEL SETEND SEV SHADD8 SHADD16 SHASX SHSAX SHSUB8 SHSUB16 SMC SMLAxy SMLAD SMLAL SMLALD SMLALxy SMLAWy SMLSD SMLSLD SMMLA SMMLS SMMUL SMUAD SMULxy SMULL SMULWy SMUSD SRS SSAT SSAT16 SSAX SSUB8 SSUB16 STC and STC2 STM STR (immediate offset) STR (register offset) STR, unprivileged STREX SUB SUBS pc, lr SVC SWP and SWPB SXTAB SXTAB16 SXTAH SXTB SXTB16 SXTH SYS TBB and TBH TEQ TST UADD8 UADD16 UASX UBFX UDIV UHADD8 UHADD16 UHASX UHSAX UHSUB8 UHSUB16 UMAAL UMLAL UMULL UND pseudo-instruction UQADD8 UQADD16 UQASX UQSAX UQSUB8 UQSUB16 USAD8 USADA8 USAT USAT16 USAX USUB8 USUB16 UXTAB UXTAB16 UXTAH UXTB UXTB16 UXTH WFE WFI YIELD VFP Instructions Directives Reference Via File Syntax

LSL

10.49 LSL

Logical Shift Left. This instruction is a preferred synonym for MOV instructions with shifted register operands.

Syntax

LSL{S}{cond} Rd, Rm, Rs
LSL{S}{cond} Rd, Rm, #sh
where:
S
is an optional suffix. If S is specified, the condition flags are updated on the result of the operation.
Rd
is the destination register.
Rm
is the register holding the first operand. This operand is shifted left.
Rs
is a register holding a shift value to apply to the value in Rm. Only the least significant byte is used.
sh
is a constant shift. The range of values permitted is 0-31.

Operation

LSL provides the value of a register multiplied by a power of two, inserting zeros into the vacated bit positions.

Restrictions in Thumb code

Thumb instructions must not use PC or SP.
You cannot specify zero for the sh value in an LSL instruction in an IT block.

Use of SP and PC in ARM instructions

You can use SP in these ARM instructions but this is deprecated in ARMv6T2 and above.
You cannot use PC in instructions with the LSL{S}{cond} Rd, Rm, Rs syntax. You can use PC for Rd and Rm in the other syntax, but this is deprecated in ARMv6T2 and above.
If you use PC as Rm, the value used is the address of the instruction plus 8.
If you use PC as Rd:
  • Execution branches to the address corresponding to the result.
  • If you use the S suffix, the SPSR of the current mode is copied to the CPSR. You can use this to return from exceptions.

    Note

    The ARM instruction LSLS{cond} pc,Rm,#sh always disassembles to the preferred form MOVS{cond} pc,Rm{,shift}.

Caution

Do not use the S suffix when using PC as Rd in User mode or System mode. The assembler cannot warn you about this because it has no information about what the processor mode is likely to be at execution time.
You cannot use PC for Rd or any operand in the LSL instruction if it has a register-controlled shift.

Condition flags

If S is specified, the LSL instruction updates the N and Z flags according to the result.
The C flag is unaffected if the shift value is 0. Otherwise, the C flag is updated to the last bit shifted out.

16-bit instructions

The following forms of this instruction are available in Thumb code, and are 16-bit instructions:
LSLS Rd, Rm, #sh
Rd and Rm must both be Lo registers. This form can only be used outside an IT block.
LSL{cond} Rd, Rm, #sh
Rd and Rm must both be Lo registers. This form can only be used inside an IT block.
LSLS Rd, Rd, Rs
Rd and Rs must both be Lo registers. This form can only be used outside an IT block.
LSL{cond} Rd, Rd, Rs
Rd and Rs must both be Lo registers. This form can only be used inside an IT block.

Architectures

This ARM instruction is available in all architectures.
This 32-bit Thumb instruction is available in ARMv6T2 and above.
This 16-bit Thumb instruction is available in ARMv4T and above.

Example

    LSLS    r1, r2, r3
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